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Terms in this set (66)
What are the three types of chemical bonding?
Ionic, covalent and metallic
Atoms of metals bond ________ with atoms of nonmetals
Atoms of metals bond_________ with each other
Atoms of nonmetals bond ________ with each other
In a covalent bond, what do two atoms share?
One or more pairs of electrons
What does the octet rule state?
Many chemical compounds tend to form bonds so that each atom shares or has eight electrons in its highest occupied energy
How is bonding within many molecules and ions indicated?
By a Lewis structure
Molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure are represented by ______
What is a three dimensional network of positive and negative ions mutually attracted to one and another?
How are ionic compounds different from materials only containing covalently bonded atoms?
The tend to be harder and more brittle and they have a higher boiling point
What gives metals their properties of high electrical and thermal conductivity , malleability, ductility and luster?
What is the VESPR theory used for?
To predict the shapes of molecules based on the fact that electron pairs strongly repel each other
What is used to predict the shapes of molecules based on the fact that orbitals within an atom ca mix to form orbitals of equal energy?
What do intermolecular forces include?
Dipole-Dipole forces and London dispersion forces
__________ is a special case of dipole-dipole forces/
how is a positive monatomic ion identified?
Just by the name of the element
How is a negative monatomic ion named?
By dropping parts of the ending of the elements name and adding ide
How many elements compose Binary compounds?
How are Binary ionic compounds named?
By combining the names of the positive and negative ions
When are Oxidation numbers useful?
In naming compounds, in writing formulas and in balancing chemical equations
How are compounds containing elements that have more than one oxidation state named?
Using the Stock System
___________ of each element in a compound may be used to determine the compound;s simplest chemical formula
By knowing oxidation numbers we can name compounds without knowing what?
Whether they are ionic or molecular
What can be calculated from the chemical formula for a compound?
Formula mass, molar mass and percentage composition
What is the percentage composition of a compound?
The percentage by mass of each element in the compound
What is used as a conversion factor between amount in moles and mass in rams of a given compound or element?
What does an empirical formula show?
The simplest whole-number ratio of atoms in a given compound
What is the percentage by mass of each element in the compound?
What indicated how many atoms of each element are combined in the simplest unit of a chemical compound?
A molecular formula can be found from the empirical formula if the _______ is measured
What four things suggest that a chemical reaction is taking place?
Heat, light, production of gas, a change in colo, formation of precipitation
What does a balanced chemical equation represent?
The identities and relative amounts of reactants and products in a chemical reaction
What kind of reaction is A+X--> AX?
What kind of reaction is AX--> A+X?
What kind of reaction is A+BX--> AX+B?
Single displacement reaction
What kind of reaction is AX+BY-->AY+BX?
Double displacement reaction
In a _________ reaction a substance combines with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light
What does an activity series list?
The elements in order of their chemical reactivity and are useful in predicting whether a chemical reaction will occur
What does Reaction stoichiometry involve?
The mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction chemical reaction
Relating one substance to another requires expressing the amount of each substance in _______
What is the conversion factor that relates the amount in moles of any two substances in a chemical reaction. (Derived from the balanced equation) ?
What does the limiting reactant control?
The maximum possible amount of product formed
What does percentage yield show?
Shows the relationship between the theoretical yield and actual yield for the product of a reaction
What can the kinetic molecular theory of matter be used for?
To explain the properties of gases, liquid and solids
What descries a model of an idea gas?
The kinetic-molecular theory of gases
What do Gases consist of?
Large numbers of tiny, fast moving particles that are far apart relative to their size
How are the particles of a liquid arranged?
Closer together and more ordered than those of a gas and are less ordered than those of a solid
Describe the properties of Liquids.
Have a definite volume and a fairly high density, and are relatively incompressible, can flow (fluids)
Describe the properties of Solids
Have a definite volume molecules are close together
What is a total three dimensional array of points that describes the arrangement of the particles of a crystal
Unlike crystalline solids, ______________ do not have a highly ordered structure or a regular shape
When two opposing changes occur at equal rates in the same closed system, the system is said to be in _____________
What kind of compound is water?
A polar covalent compound
What is responsible for waters relatively high melting point, molar enthalpy of fusion , boiling point and molar enthalpy of vaporization
The structure and hydrogen bonding
The kinetic molecular theory of gases describes what kind of gas?
What does barometer measure?
What does Dalton's law of partial pressure state?
That in a mixture of un reacting gases, the total pressure equals the sum of the partial pressures of each gas
What law illustrates the direct relationship between a gas's volume and its temperature in kevins? V=kT
What law represents the direct relationship between a gas's pressure and its temperature in Kelvins/ P=kT
What law is PV/T=k
Combined gas law
What does Avogadro's law state?
That equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
What law states that the volumes of reacting gases and their products at the same temperature and pressure can be expressed and pressure can be expressed as ratios of whole numbers?
Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes
What is the volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas at STP?
What law is PV=nRT
The ideal gas law
Why do gases diffuse (spread out)?
Bc of their constant random motion
What of gases law states the inverse relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas? PV=k
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