Na+ and K+
Proper balance of _________ is necessary for muscle coordination, heart function, fluid absorption, excretion, and nerve function Normally ____ and _____ are filtered and excreted in the urine and feces according to bodies needs.
Imbalances occur due to poor diet, dehydration, medications, and diseases. Also helps promote homeostasis.
Extracellular, Maintain ECF volume, Transmission on impulses in nerve and muscle, Regulation of acid-base balance, Kidneys important and in regulating Na+
Signs and symptoms of ________ include thirst, confusion, neuromuscular excitability, seizures, and coma.
abnormally low amount of sodium in your blood or when you have an excess of water in your blood
Signs and symptoms of ________ Nausea and vomiting, weakness, severe confusion, seizures
Transmission on impulses in nerve and muscle
Regulation of acid-base balance
Regulated by Na+ and aldosterone levels
occurs when the body releases too much potassium, such as through severe vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating during intense exercise.
___________ is essential to the functioning of the human body because it transmits nerve impulses, causes the Contraction of muscles and is integral to healthy development of teeth and bones and immune system.
Maintain normal muscle and nerve function
Keeps heart rhythm steady
Supports a healthy immune system
Role in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
Deficiencies in Mg++
signs and symptoms of restlessness, confusion, palpitations, muscle and nerve irritably is R/T ________.
Movement from an area of low dissolved solutes to one that is higher in dissolved solutes. Low concentration to high.
Same concentrate as the cell cytoplasm. Used to expand the ECF. No effect on the ICF
Contain a higher concentration of solute relative to the cells cytoplasm. When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution the water moves out of the cell to the higher concentration of solute causing the cell to shrink. Replace electrolytes and shift fluid from interstitial space to plasma. Irritating to vein walls and may cause circulatory overload
Contain a lower concentration of solute relative to the cells cytoplasm. Too much and cells can burst
Pulls fluid from blood vessels to interstitial tissue and cells.
Can deplete the circulatory system.
Do not give to patients with low blood pressure
Electrolyte Solutions 0.9% Normal Saline (NS)
154 mEq of Na+ and Cl-, Isotonic
Advantages: fluid of choice, ECF replacement, To initiate blood transfusions. Disadvantages: Too much: fluid overload
Lactated Ringers (LR)
Isotonic, Replaces Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca++
Advantages: Most similar to body's electrolyte content
Disadvantages: Do not use: Liver disease, profound shock, cardiac failure, or hypovolemia
Fluid Volume Excess
Defining Characteristics of ______ is VS, Weight gain, Peripheral Edema, Neck vein distention, Moist crackles in the lungs, Hand vein emptying > 3 sec. Bounding pulse, tachycardia, increased respiratory rate, SOB, increased blood pressure
pitting edema overhead
Fluid Volume Deficit
Defining Characteristics of ______ is VS, dry mucus membranes, Skin turgor > 3 secs, Decreased urinary output, Recent weight loss, Hand vein filling > 3 secs. Decreased pulse and threadyDecreased B/P, best to check skin turgor over sternum and forehead. sunken eyeballs
syncope, postural hypotension, increased thirst
Lab most elevated due to decreased volume of plasma
Partial Parental Nutrition-PPN
can be given in a peripheral IV
TPN and PPN are Hypertonic solutions
Total Parental Nutrition-TPN
this type of nutrition can only be given through a central vein such as med port, pic line, central line.