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32 terms

Chemistry Ch 14 & 15 (Acids/Bases)

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binary acid
an acid that contains only two different elements
oxyacid
an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element
Arrhenius acid
a chemical compuond that increases the concentration of H₃O⁺ ions
Arrhenius base
a substance that increases the concentration of OH⁻ ions
strong acid
an acid that ionizes completely
weak acid
an acid that releases few hydrogen ions
Brønsted-Lowry Acid
a proton donator
Brønsted-Lowry Base
a proton acceptor
Monoprtic Acid
can only donate one proton per molecule
Polyprotic Acid
can donate more than one proton per molecule
Lewis Acid
atom, ion or molecule that accepts an electron pair from a covalent bond
Lewis Base
atom, ion or molecule that donates an electron pair from a covalent bond
Conjugate Acid
the species that is formed when a Brønsted-Lowry base gains a proton
Conjugate Base
the species that remains after a Brønsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton
neutralization
reaction between hydronium and hydroxide ions to from water molecules
salt
an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid
self-ionization of water
where two water molecules produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion by transfer of a proton
pH
a solution's negative of the common log of the hydronium ion concentration
pOH
a solution's negative of the common log of the hydroxide ion concentration
transition interval
the pH range over which an indicator changes color
titration
the controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration
equivalence point
the point at which the two solutions in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts
end point
the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color
strong acids (7)
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO₃, HClO₃, HClO₄, H₂SO₄
weak bases (2)
NH₃, CH₃NH₂
pH scale
0 (acidic) - 7 - 14 (basic)
pOH scale
14 (acidic) - 7 - 0 (basic)
A/B common properties
conduct electric current
change the colors of acid-base indicators
react with an acid or a base to form a salt and water
OH↔H₃O
1.0x 10⁻¹⁴ / concentration H₃O / OH
pH↔ pOH
14 - value of pH/pOH
concentration → pH
-log (concentration)
pH (pOH) → concentration
10⁻ⁿ (n= pH)
*for pOH first switch to pH