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79 terms

geog 2051 test 2 questions

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They withdraw the greatest amounts for agriculture.
Which of the following water withdrawal habits do developing nations exhibit?
exotic streams
The Nile and Colorado rivers are examples of...
soil moisture recharge
Surplus (SURPL) does not include which of the following?
large; there are more particles (i.e., there is greater surface area) for the water to adhere to
Clay has a __________ field capacity because ________.
Pheonix, Arizona
Of the example stations, which of the following experiences the greatest moisture deficits?
the removal of ground water at a rate faster than that at which it can be replaced
The term "ground water mining" refers to
infiltration
Precipitation that reaches Earth's surface penetrates the soil surface through the process of
received much of its water from melting glaciers in the past
The High Plains aquifer
water that evaporates from an irrigated field
Which of the following is an example of the consumptive use of water?
A) dumps B) pesticides and fertilizers C) septic tanks
Which of the following is a potential source of ground water pollution?
78 percent of all precipitation falls on the oceans.
Which of the following is true regarding the hydrologic cycle?
available water
Soil moisture that plants are capable of accessing and using is called
the highest values are in the Southwest
Which of the following is true regarding potential evapotranspiration (POTET) in the United States?
Water is added to the soil when actual evapotranspiration is equal to potential evapotranspiration and the soil is full of moisture.
Which of the following conditions are necessary for a surplus to exist?
A) in the atmosphere
B) at the surface of the Earth and in the oceans
C) at a depth of up to several kilometers below the surface
The hydrologic cycle includes water
the outward movement of water from plant leaves
Transpiration refers to
weighing lyismeter
Which of the following can measure evapotranspiration?
industry-mining
This activity uses the least amount of withdrawn water in the United States
water deficits in the summer months
The water balance for Kingsport, Tennessee exhibits
aeration; saturation
Excess surface water percolates through the zone of _________ to reach the zone of _________ and the water table.
50 percent
Approximately what percent of the U.S. population derives a portion of its fresh water from groundwater sources?
Hurricane Camille
created deficit abatement (drought-ending) precipitation that produced benefits exceeding damages
POTET - DEFIC
Actual evapotranspiration (ACTET) is determined by
water table
The line of contact between the zone of aeration and the zone of saturation is known as the
discharge
A stream's flow rate is called its
potentiometric surface
The water in a confined aquifer is under pressure of its own weight, creating a pressure level called the
clay
Which of the following soil particle sizes is usually associated with the slowest recharge rate?
capillary
Which of the following types of water is accessible to plants?
a depression in the water table formed by rapid ground water withdrawal
The term "cone of depression" refers to
precipitation; evaporation and transpiration
In the water budget, _________ is the major receipt and _________ is the major expenditure.
increased humidity
Which of the following would decrease the rate at which evapotranspiration occurs?
a deficit
If precipitation and soil moisture are inadequate to meet potential evapotranspiration demands, the moisture condition is described as
70%
Approximately what percentage of our bodies is comprised of water?
rain, sleet, snow, and hail
Precipitation normally refers to
groundwater
The largest practical potential source of fresh water in North America is
B) available pore spaces (i.e., the soil's porosity)
C) flow of water through soil (i.e., the soil's permeability)
The texture and structure of the soil dictate
silt
Which of the following types of soil would have the most water available for plant use following a rain?
The soil is holding the maximum amount of water that it can hold against the pull of gravity.
Which of the following is true when the soil is at field capacity?
fog
Which of the following is not considered precipitation in all climates?
A) subsurface flow from the land to the ocean
B) atmospheric water carried back to the ocean from land
C) surface water flow from the land to the ocean
Atmospheric water that is carried from the ocean to the land is balanced by
India
Of the following regions, which is most vulnerable to water scarcity?
false
Canada is facing water shortages. T/F
uncemented sand that is loosely compacted
Which of the following would make the best aquifer?
aquifer
A water-bearing rock stratum is called a/an
potential evapotranspiration exceeds actual evapotranspiration
Which of the following is normally true of a hot desert?
The highest amounts occur in the Southwest and extreme South
Which of the following is true of precipitation in North America?
South-central Nebraska
This region of the High Plains aquifer is suffering the least from groundwater mining
the amount of water that would evaporate or transpire if it were available
Potential evapotranspiration refers to
increases
If the field capacity increases while wilting point decreases, the amount of available water
71%
Of the average precipitation over the lower 48 states, what percentage evaporates and transpires on the average per day?
Withdrawals increased 160 percent between 1950 and 1990
Which of the following accurately describes annual groundwater withdrawal in the United States?
available water
The difference between the wilting point and field capacity is approximately equal to
clay
In order to protect aquifers from pollution, the bottoms of waste dumps should be lined with
runoff
Which of the following is the most directly useful for estimating stream flow?
The total amount of groundwater has been reduced by the mining of water.
Which of the following is true regarding groundwater?
A) salt water intrusion
B) compression of the aquifer, resulting in a permanent loss of water storage capacity
C) land subsidence and cracked building foundations
Which of the following is a potential consequence of ground water mining?
god; impermeable
Silt and clay make ______ aquifers because they are ______.
the water pressure in the soil is more than the water pressure in the plant
As transpiration occurs, water enters plant roots because ___________.
true
Although more water can be held in a clay soil, less is actually available for plant use than in a silt soil. T/F
true
Water could be pumped faster from a geologic unit composed of sand than from one composed of clay. T/F
false
At wilting point, no water remains in the soil. T/F
true
Potential evapotranspiration (POTET), when reduced by the deficit (DEFIC), yields the actual evapotranspiration value for a given time period. T/F
true
Water drains more easily from a sandy soil than from a clay soil. T/F
true
The water available to a plant is a function of soil texture and the effective rooting depth of the plant itself. T/F
false
All plant species have the same amount of water available to them under the same soil moisture conditions. T/F
false
Precipitation normally includes rain, sleet, snow, dew, clouds, and fog. T/F
false
Gravitational water is associated with soil moisture deficits. T/F
true
Soil moisture deficits are frequently overcome by irrigation in the arid and semi-arid agricultural regions of the world. T/F
true
The upper limit of water that collects in the zone of saturation is the water table. T/F
true
Rain is measured at more than 100,000 stations worldwide. T/F
true
Abnormally high cancer rates have occurred in the New Orleans area because of the contamination of the Mississippi River. T/F
true
An aquifer pumped beyond its recharge rate is over utilized and becomes a product of groundwater mining. T/F
false
Hygroscopic water is readily accessible to plants. T/F
false
When actual evapotranspiration is less than potential evapotranspiration, a soil moisture surplus exists. T/F
true
If the potentiometric surface reaches the surface of the ground, a spring will develop T/F
false
Ground water pollution that our generation creates will not be a problem in the future (decades to centuries) because it is easy to clean an aquifer once it is polluted. T/F
false
The ten largest rivers in the world combined, in terms of discharge, exceed the total groundwater resource. T/F
true
On a hot day, a tree can transpire hundreds of liters of water. T/F
true
Thornthwaite devised a method for estimating potential evapotranspiration that utilized mean air temperature and daylength