Earth Science Regents Review
Terms in this set (144)
1. The same objects have the
same density (NO MATTER WHAT SIZE)
2. The closer isolines are...
the steeper the gradient
(diagram: North side is steepest)
3. The altitude of Polaris equals...
the latitude of the observer
Diagram: Observer's altitude = 66.5 degrees North
4. The Earth rotates
West to east
15 degrees per hour
in 24 hours or one day
5. Latitude lines run
Longitude lines run
east-west, but measure north or south of the equator
north-south, but measure east or west of the Prime Meridian
6. Going west (California), time gets...
Going east (London) time gets...
7. Water flows
downhill, opposite the bends ('V") in the contour lines. (they point upstream)
8. Tick marks on a contour map mean
the 1st line is the same elevation as the one next to it
9. To get the highest possible elevation
subtract one from the next possible contour line(The highest possible elevation in diagram is 1,699)
10. Minerals are identified
on the basis of ...
Well defined physical and chemical properties
11. The mineral & rocks that react to acid are...
Calcite, limestone, and marble
12. The basic elements of most minerals are...
Oxygen and silicon
13. The physical properties of minerals depends upon...
The internal arrangement and bonding of atoms
14. Rocks are CLASSIFIED on the basis of
Their origin (how they formed)
15. Igneous rocks form by...
the crystallization of molten magma or lava (intergrown crystals)
16. Crystal size in igneous rocks depends on...
the rate of cooling
17a. Intrusive igneous rocks form...
slowly beneath the earth's surface
17b. Extrusive igneous rocks form ...
quickly on the earth's surface (small crystals or glassy)
18. Sedimentary rocks form from...
sediments, evaporation of water and organic remains
19. Rocks are IDENTIFIED by their...
Coarse, fine, glassy, vesicular
20. Fossils are found almost exclusively in...
21. Metamorphic rocks form from...
other rocks by the action of heat and/or pressure (recrystallization)
22. Contact metamorphism occurs when...
molten rock comes in contact with other rocks
23. Regional metamorphism occurs...
over large areas and is associated with mountain building
24. Weathering occurs when rocks are exposed to...
the hydrosphere, biosphere, & atmosphere
25. Moist & warm climates favor...
26. Moist & cold climates favor...
27. As particle size decreases...
surface area increases & the rate of weathering increases
28. Soils develop as a result of...
weathering and biological activity
29. Resistant layers of rock...
stick out (forms cliffs)
(diagram: layer A is resistant)
30. Streams valleys are...
31. Stream velocity depends on
gradient and volume of water
32. The outside of a meander bend is...
The inside of a meander bend is...
fast and erodes
slow and deposits
33. As stream velocity increases, the size of the particles that can be transported...
34. Streams carry sediments by...
solution, suspension, bouncing & rolling
35. The particles that settle out first are...
larger, most dense, and roundest
37. Gravity and glacial deposits are...
36. Water and wind deposits are...
sorted by size and layered
39. Evidence of gravity erosion is
unsorted, angular (sharp) rocks at the base of a cliff
38. Glacial landscapes show...
U shaped valleys, erratics (large boulders) depressions, irregular hills (drumlins), kettle lakes, scratched boulders
40. The area drained by a river and its tributaries is a...
41. The sediments deposited at the mouth of a river form a ...
42. Plate tectonics is caused by...
Mantle convection currents
43. The farther you go from the center of a ridge...
The older the rock gets
44. One seismograph can give you
To get the direction you need
45. Continental crust is...
Oceanic crust is...
granite, thick, and old in age
basalt, thin, and young in age
46. We know the outer core is liquid because...
S waves can't go through it
47. The 3 types of plate boundaries are...
divergent (moving away at mid ocean ridges)
convergent (coming together)
transform (sliding / San Andreas Fault)
48. Subduction is when...
one plate sinks under another forming a trench
49. P waves are...
S waves are...
faster than S waves, travel through solids and liquids
slower, travel through solids only
50. Most earthquakes are located...
at or near plate boundaries
51. In undisturbed strata, the bottom layer is...
oldest = Layer G
youngest = Layer A
52. Faults, folds, & intrusions are...
younger than the rocks they are found in
H, G, F, E, D, Folding of H through D,
C, B, Erosion
53. Index fossils are...
found over a wide area and existed for a short period of time
Diagram: Letter A is the index fossil (in one layer but in all outcrops)
54. An unconformity is a...
Unconformities represent a...
buried erosional surface
gap in the geologic record
(Diagram: Unconformity is between K and J and also below H)
55. The half life of a radioactive isotope...
cannot be changed
56. Carbon 14 is used to date...
recent organic remains
57. Most life forms of the geologic past have...
58. Dark and Rough
Light and Smooth
59. The difference between forms of electromagnetic radiation is...
60. Porosity does NOT depend on
61. As particle size increases, permeability...
increases (directly related)
62. As particle size increases, capillary action...
Decreases (inversely related)
63. Good absorbers of light are...
(black heats up and cools down quickly)
64. Water has a high specific heat (1.0) because...
It heats up and cools down slowly (it moderates
65. Infiltration occurs when the land is
permeable, unsaturated, low slope, not frozen
66. Runoff occurs when the land is
impermeable, saturated, steep slope, and frozen ground
67. Porosity is the
percent of empty space in the soil
68. Permeability is...
How fast water flows through soil
69. Capillarity is the...
Upward movement of water into small pieces
70. The 500 rule says...
500 add a 9, below 500 add a 10, and always add a decimal
71. Clouds form when...
Warm, moist air rises
And condenses at the dew point
72. As altitude increases, air pressure...
73. Wind is named for...
Wind is caused by...
the direction it comes from
differences in air pressure
74. The closer air temperature is to the dew point...
the greater the chance of precipitation
75. A barometer measures...
An anemometer measures...
Wind speed (pictured)
76. A sling psychrometer has a wet bulb and a dry bulb to measure
dew point and relative humidity
77. IsoBARS close together
fast wind speed
far apart = calm winds
78. The weather in a high is...
The weather in a low is...
Nice and sunny
(cloudy with precipitation)
79. A rising barometer means...
A falling barometer means...
A steady barometer means...
good weather is coming
bad weather is coming
80. Fronts occur where...
air masses meet
81. At the cold front, air is...
In the warm front, air is...
very unstable, thunderstorms occur (short, but heavy rain)
stable, long drizzle occurs (long and light rain)
82. Coriolis effect is
winds and ocean currents deflected due to earth's ROTATION
83. The most likely areas for precipitation are...
the leading edges of air masses (fronts)
84. The circulation around a low pressure system is...
The circulation around a high pressure system is...
toward the center,
where air rises
away from the center,
where air sinks
85. Weather systems in the US usually move...
from west to east (with a hook to the NE)
86. Source Regions:
warm & dry
cool & dry
warm & moist
cool & moist
87. Hurricanes form...
Hurricanes lose strength...
over warm oceans in summer and autumn
as they move over land or cool water
88. To prepare for a hurricane
prepare an escape route, have a hand-crank or battery powered radio, get first aid kit, store 3 days food water
89. In the US, at noon, to see the sun you have to face...
90. The earth revolves...
1 degree per day,
in 365 1/4 days or one year
91. The seasons are caused by...
the tilt of the earth's axis & the revolution around the sun
92. As the angle of insolation increases...
The temperature increases
93. The sun is most intense at an angle of...
94. Shadows get longer as the sun...
Figure D is highest sun, shortest shadow
Figure C and E is lowest sun and shortest shadow
95. SUMMER SOLSTICE...
vertical ray hits...
North Pole gets...
north of east
north of west
highest of year
tropic of cancer
16 hours of daylight
24 hours of daylight
96. WINTER SOLSTICE...
vertical ray hits...
North Pole gets...
south of east
south of west
lowest of year
tropic of Capricorn
8 hours daylight
0 hours daylight
97. VERNAL EQUINOX
vertical ray hits
whole earth gets
98. The equator always receives...
12 hours of intense sunlight
Diagram: Choice #3 is correct path with dates
99. The earth absorbs mostly...
short wavelength light energy
100. The earth reradiates mostly...
long wavelength heat energy
101. Gases such as carbon dioxide...
prevent the escape of heat causing the greenhouse effect
102. Marine climate has
Continental climate has
cool summers and warm winters (water moderates temperature because of high specific heat)
Cold winters and hot summers (larger temperature range)
103. Leeward side of a mountain is...
Windward side of a mountain is...
dry & warm due to compression
cool & moist due to expansion
104. The sun is never
directly overhead in NY (sun is only overhead in the tropics)
(90 degrees overhead is the Zenith)
105. Duration of insolation is the
length of day
(most duration of insolation occurs in summer, least is in winter)
106. Earth's orbit around the sun is ...
107. Proofs that the Earth Rotates:
Focault Pendulum (pictured)
108. Proof Earth revolves
different constellations are visible at different times of the year
109. Proof the universe is expanding
110. Eccentricity is a measure of
how oval or elliptical an orbit is
highest = 1.0 (a line)
lowest = 0.0 (a perfect circle)
111. The line between Terrestrial and Jovian Planets...
Is between Mars and Jupiter
*112. A new moon occurs when...
The moon is between the sun and the Earth(S.M.E)
*112. A full moon occurs when
the earth is between the sun & the moon (S.E.M.)
113. A solar eclipse happens when...
The moon is between the earth & the sun and it blocks out the sun
114. A lunar eclipse happens when...
the Earth is between the sun & the moon and the Earths shadow hits the moon
115. When the moon and sun are working against each other, we get...
smaller tides (neap tides)
116. When the Earth, moon and sun are in a line, a____________ occurs.
spring tide occurs (most extreme tides)
117. The closer & larger two objects are...
the greater the force of gravity
(Diagram: Planet A has greatest force of gravity / Planet D has least force of gravity)
118. As a planet gets closer to the sun...
the faster it orbits
119. The moon revolves...
around the earth, in an elliptical orbit, in one month
120. Your universal address from smallest to largest is
Earth, Solar system, Milky Way and universe
When in doubt...
use the reference tables!!
The moon has phases because
it revolves around Earth in 29.5 days
(1/2 the moon is always lit)
Dewpoint temperature is the
temperature at which the air is saturated (filled) with water.
Radioactive (absolute) dating...
Compares the percentage of unstable atoms to stable atoms to get the age of the rock
The age of the universe is approximately
10-15 billion years old
solar system and Earth are only 4.6 billion years old
How close or compact the molecules are
To find Polaris (N. star)...
go 5 times the distance between the pointer stars of the big dipper
Relative humidity is the
percent of water in the air
Precipitation occurs when:
warm, moist air rises, expands and cools
As temperature increases, density
decreases (inverse relationship)
As temperature increases, molecules...
increases (direct relationship)
The primary FORCE that drives the agents of erosion is...
The intensity of sunlight varies with...
the angle of the sun
Warm air is capable of...
holding more water vapor than cool air
Air in a low pressure area is...
Air in a high pressure area is...
warm & moist
cool & dry
Behind a cold front, the air is
Behind a warm front, the air is
Cold and dry (cP)
warm and moist (mT)
The primary AGENT of erosion is
Specific heat is...
The resistance to heating
If an intrusion has NO hair on top (contact metamorphism), it is...
Older than the rock layers
Plate tectonics says...
the earth's lithosphere is divided into pieces called plates that move
As pressure increases...
Molecules move closer together and density increases
Become one with...
the index cards!
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