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Term 2 biology
Terms in this set (75)
Allows light to pass through the lower cells, contains no chlorophyll.
In the corex surrounded by casparian strip to restroct the apoplast pathway to the vascular bundle.
Controls water movment into the vascular system.
Made up of phloem, cambrium and xylem.
Carries water and minerals up the plant stem.
Carries food from the leaves which is used to make new cells at root tip.
Stores food, such as starch.
Takes in water and minerals
Water and nutrients pass through cell walls but can only reach casparian strip (passive).
Water and minerals pass through cell membranes and cytoplasm of the cells and across the epidermis.
Epidermis, endodermis, casparian strip, vascular bundle, xylem, phloem, cortex, root hair, apoplast pathway and symplast pathway.
Made up of phloem, xylem and cambrium.
Epidermis, cambrium, vascular bundle, xylem and phloem.
Parts of leaves
Lower epidermis, stomatal pore, guard cell, vascular bundle, xylem, phloem, vein, spongy mesophyll, palisade, chloroplast, upper epidermis ans cuticle.
Protective layer, allows diffusion.
Opens and closes to allow and carbon dioxide to enter when activated by light energy.
Opens and closes stomatal pore.
Allows carbon dioxide to diffuse rapidly.
Site of photosythesis, lots of chlorophyll.
Allows light to pass through to lower cells, contains no chloroplasts.
Protects the leaf and lowers evaportaion.
Evaporation of water from plant shoots, mainly through stomatal pore.
1. Water and nutrients take up by root hairs by active or passive transport.
2. Travels through cortex by apoplast pathway or symplast pathway.
3. Enters cytoplasm and reaches casparian strip.
4. Water is 'pulled' into xylem from epidermis due to root pressure.
5. Loss of water through the end of the leaf veins (guattation)
6. Capillary action, cohesion and adhesion cause water to 'crawl up' the stem.
7. Pressure difference cause by transpiration draws up more water.
8. Evaporation from leaf.
No energy required, such as diffusion. If the concentration is lower in root hairs and higher in the soil.
Requires energy. Occurs if the concentration of nutrients is higher in root hair cells and lower in the soil.
Polar water molecules tend to stick together with hydrogen bonds.
Water molecules tend to stick to polar surfaces.
Cohesion & adhesion causes to water to 'crawl up' up the stem.
Cohesion between water molecules creates a 'water chain affect'. As molecules are removed by evaporation, move are drawn up.
Transport of nutrients through phloem sieve tubes due to high pressure in sources and low pressure in sinks.
Transform light energy to glucose for use for the plant.
Carbon dioxide + water -----> (light energy and chlorophyll) glucose + oxygen + water
Light reaction (light dependent stage)
- takes place in the grana of the chloroplast
- light is used to split water into oxygen and hydrogen
- 18 ATP is produced
Calvin cyle (light independent stage)
- takes place in the stroma of chloroplast
- ATP previously created is used to construct glucose from carbon dioxide and hydrogen
- produces water
Stack of thylakiod membranes containing chlorophyll.
Semifluid matrix surrounded the grana in chloroplasts.
Green organelle containing chlorohyll, where photosytheis takes place.
Green pigment located in chloroplasts, used to trap light energy for photosynthesis.
How does chlorophyll affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll traps light energy so when there is a breakdown, photosynthesis decreases. If the soil is deficient in nitrogen and magnesium, chlorophyll cannot be made.
How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration linked?
Photosynthesis: carbon dioxide + water ----> (light, chlorophyll) glucose + oxygen + water
Cellular respiration: glucose + oxygen ----> carbon dioxide + water + energy
- can happen at the same time
Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and Sulfur.
Iron, boron, manganese, zinc, copper and chlorine.
Parts of a flower
Stamen, carpel, petal, septal, stigma, anther, filament, ovule, ovary and style.
Male organs made up of anther and filament.
Female organ made up of stigma, style, ovary and ovule.
Leaves protect the flower before it opens
Sticky, holds on to pollination. Where pollination occurs.
Where pollen is made
Holds up anther
Fertilisation occurs, comes seed
Contains ovules and eggs, becomes fruit.
Supports stigma and connects it to the ovary.
Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to a stigma of the same species.
Occurs when pollen is transferred to a stigma the same flower of different flower on the same plant.
Occurs when pollen is transferred to a stigma of another plant of the same species by insects or wind.
- two cotyledons
- 4-5 floral parts
- net like veins
- 3 pores in pollen
- bundled vascular bundles
- one cotyledon
- 3 floral parts
- parallel veins
- 1 pore in pollen
- dispersed vascular bundles
1. Pollen grain lands on stigma
2. Grain produces a pollen tube from style to ovary (secretes enzymes as it grows).
3. Tip of pollen tube has tube nuclei and gametes
4. Pollen tube enters an ovule
5. One sperm joins with egg molecule to make zygote
6. Zygote develops into embryo
7. Other sperm molecule joins with two polar nuclei and creates endosperm
Seed coat, endosperm, hilium, embryo, radicle, plumule, epicotyl, cotyledon, aleurone cells.
Scar from the seed being attached to the parent cell.
Forms new plant
Where the root develops.
Shoot tip with small leaves.
Basis for plant stem
Part of embryo that produces leaves
Seed germination process
1. Imbibition, water uptake, soften tissues and seed coat ruptures.
2. Gibberellic acid activates
3. Gibberellic acid is dissolved and distributed by water, arrives at aleurone cells and activates genes.
4. Amylase is produces
5. Amylase accelerates hydrolysis of starch
6. Starch move to the cotyledon and radicle to start germination.
Results in offspring that are clones of the parents and arise from mitosis in the somatic cells of the parent.
Fusion of two gamete nuclei restores the diploid number to form the zygote.
Wind pollinated plant features
- petals are dull
- stigmas are feathery
- large stamens hand outside the flower
- no nectar produced
- large amounts of light pollen grains
Insect pollinated plant features
- sticky pollen
- bright coloured, scented petals
- inside stamens
- sweet nectar
- sticky stigma
Where carbohydrates start its journey (where it is produced or stored)
Where carbohydrates end up (where it is needed or where it will be stored).
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