23 terms

Water

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Composition of Earth's Water
97% seawater, not usable.
3% remaining water is usable.
-69% of the usable water is frozen.
-30% of the usable water is underground.
-0.01% of Earth's water is both usable and easily accessible.
Groundwater
Water found beneath the surface of the earth.
Surface Water
Water found above the surface of the earth.
Aquifer
Rocks that hold water.
Aquiclude
Rocks that will not hold water nor allow its movement (non-porous and impermeable).
Aquitard
A layer of rock that limits the movement of groundwater. It may be non- porous and has low hydraulic conductivity.
Water Table
The boundary between saturated and unsaturated ground.
Salinisation
An increase in the salinity (salt content) of water.
How could salinisation occur?
If more water is being removed from an aquifer than is being replaced, increasing the salt concentration.
Saltwater Intrusion
When aquifers near the coast are depleted and saltwater leaks into the aquifer, changing its salinity.
Subsidence
The collapsing of ground.
Economic Water Scarcity
When water is available but inaccessible or unusable.
Physical Water Scarcity
When there is not enough water available.
Water Stress
When the demand for water exceeds the supply of water causing water shortages.
Drought
A shortage of water.
Reasons for the Growth in Demand for Water
Population growth
Domestic demand
Agricultural demand
Industrial demand
Energy production
Reasons for the Falling Supply of Water
Climate change
Groundwater depletion
Sewage
Pollution
Political
Mismanagement
Problems Caused by Water Shortages and Water Pollution
Drought
Crop Failure
Livestock Deaths
Famine
Groundwater depletion (subsidence and saltwater intrusion)
Conflict
Refugees
Disease
Eutrophication
Biodiversity loss
Possible Solutions to Water Shortages and Water Pollution
Irrigation projects
Reduced leakage
Dam construction
Water metering
Construction of wells
International cooperation
Sewage treatment
Virtual water
Desalination
Conservation and education
How does the world use water (LEDCs/MICs, MEDCs)
LEDCs/MICs: Agricultural 82%, Domestic 8%, Industrial 10%

MEDCs: Agricultural 30%, Domestic 11%, Industrial 59%
What are the methods of water supply
Dams/Resevoirs
Boreholes
Desalination
Wells
Pros and Cons of those water supply methods
Dams and Reservoirs: (pros) hydroelectric power can be generated (cons)Eroded material can make farms down stream less fertile

Boreholes: (pros) cheap and easy solution for LEDCs if situated in the correct place (cons) big element of uncertainty as water stores vary in location concentration

Desalination: (pros) ocean will always be there, no dependancy and highly understood method (cons) contributes to greenhouse gases and is expensive

Wells: (pros) expensive intially but makes back the money (cons) can dry up, possibilty for low flourine levels, bad for teeth
How is water used worldwide
Agricultural: Growing plants, irrigation

Domestic: clean drinking water, washing water

Industrial: Used to generated power, cooling nuclear reactors