Terms in this set (23)
Composition of Earth's Water
97% seawater, not usable.
3% remaining water is usable.
-69% of the usable water is frozen.
-30% of the usable water is underground.
-0.01% of Earth's water is both usable and easily accessible.
Water found beneath the surface of the earth.
Water found above the surface of the earth.
Rocks that hold water.
Rocks that will not hold water nor allow its movement (non-porous and impermeable).
A layer of rock that limits the movement of groundwater. It may be non- porous and has low hydraulic conductivity.
The boundary between saturated and unsaturated ground.
An increase in the salinity (salt content) of water.
How could salinisation occur?
If more water is being removed from an aquifer than is being replaced, increasing the salt concentration.
When aquifers near the coast are depleted and saltwater leaks into the aquifer, changing its salinity.
The collapsing of ground.
Economic Water Scarcity
When water is available but inaccessible or unusable.
Physical Water Scarcity
When there is not enough water available.
When the demand for water exceeds the supply of water causing water shortages.
A shortage of water.
Reasons for the Growth in Demand for Water
Reasons for the Falling Supply of Water
Problems Caused by Water Shortages and Water Pollution
Groundwater depletion (subsidence and saltwater intrusion)
Possible Solutions to Water Shortages and Water Pollution
Construction of wells
Conservation and education
How does the world use water (LEDCs/MICs, MEDCs)
LEDCs/MICs: Agricultural 82%, Domestic 8%, Industrial 10%
MEDCs: Agricultural 30%, Domestic 11%, Industrial 59%
What are the methods of water supply
Pros and Cons of those water supply methods
Dams and Reservoirs: (pros) hydroelectric power can be generated (cons)Eroded material can make farms down stream less fertile
Boreholes: (pros) cheap and easy solution for LEDCs if situated in the correct place (cons) big element of uncertainty as water stores vary in location concentration
Desalination: (pros) ocean will always be there, no dependancy and highly understood method (cons) contributes to greenhouse gases and is expensive
Wells: (pros) expensive intially but makes back the money (cons) can dry up, possibilty for low flourine levels, bad for teeth
How is water used worldwide
Agricultural: Growing plants, irrigation
Domestic: clean drinking water, washing water
Industrial: Used to generated power, cooling nuclear reactors
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