Terms in this set (24)
An argument that attacks the character of the arguer instead of the issue at hand.
Ad populum (bandwagon)
This argument that suggests an idea must be true simply because it is widely held.
Changing the subject and takes the listener down a unrelated path.
Appeal to Tradition
A claim that a point of view is correct because it has always been believed or because it has always been done that way.
The arguer shifts the meaning of a term or phrase from one premise to the next.
A+B+C+D+E+F+Ect. = Z and Z should not happen so neither should A
The arguer draws a conclusion about a population based on a small sample (jumping to conclusions).
Ex: Stereotyping and sexism
If B happened after A, then A must have caused B.
Blaming something that has no connection with the problem. Ex. I sneezed at the same time the power went off. My sneeze did something to make the power go off.
Asserts that a complex situation can have only two possible outcomes and that one of the options is necessary or preferable. Ex. either-or
The arguer suggests that her/his opponent's view is false because she has something personal to gain if it is accepted.
Hypocritical. Ex. Arguer 1: You should not be eating that... it has been scientifically proven that eating burgers is not good for your health.
Arguer 2: You eat burgers all the time so that can't be true.
Guilt by association
Person or argument is associated with bad people or things
Appeal to force/fear
Change your argument or it will hurt you.
If it hasn't been disproved then it is true or if it hasn't been proved then it is false.
A comparison of two things that have very little to do with each other. (apples to oranges)
Makes own position stronger by misinterpreting opponents position.
Hypothesis contrary to fact
Start with a hypothesis that's not true and draw conclusions from it.
Affirming the consequent
Any argument with the invalid structure of: if A then B, B therefore A. Ex. If I get a B on the test, I will pass the test, if I pass the test I got a B.
Denying the Antecedent
Any argument with the invalid structure of: if A then B. Not A, therefore not B. Ex. A dog is a mammal, if it is not a dog, it is not a mammal.
Poisoning the well
The arguer uses biased language (either positive or negative) to support their views rather than offering evidence.
Begging the question
This is a kind of circular argument where the support only restates the claim. Ex. Jogging is FUN because it is ENJOYABLE.
Definition too broad
The definition INCLUDES items that should not be included
Definition too narrow
The definition does NOT include items which should be included
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