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Psychology 1101 Chapter 1- Psychology's Roots, Big Ideas, Critical Thinking Tools
Terms in this set (76)
Created a machine to measure how long it took people to press a telegraph key. Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany.
Margaret Floy Washburn
After Harvard refused to grant Calkins the degree she had earned, Washburn became the first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D. She focused on animal behavior research in The Animal Mind.
The science of behavior and mental processes.
The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without the reference to mental processes.
emphasized our unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences.
historically important perspective that emphasized human growth potential.
led by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
drew attention to our needs for love and acceptance and to the ways that an environment can help or hinder personal growth.
The study of mental processes, such as occur when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems
How thinking and emotion interact in anxiety, depression, and other disorders
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with mental activity (including perception, thinking, memory, and language.
merge of cognitive psychology (science of the mind) and neuroscience (science of the brain).
Anything a human or non human does/any action we can observe and record
Ex: yelling, smiling, questionnaire marking
internal states (thoughts, beliefs, feelings) that we infer from behavior
Part of the Scientific Attitude.
-Research beginning with passion to explore
-Curiosity about the world around us
Part of the Scientific Attitude
-Skepticism about unproven claims and ideas
-Skeptical testing can reveal which claim best matches the facts
-Requires an attitude that is not cynical but not gullible
Part of the Scientific Attitude
-Humility about our own understanding
-opinion doesn't matter, the truths revealed in response to our questioning does
an approach that integrates different but compliment any views from biological, psychological, and social-cultural viewpoints
The age old controversy over the relative influence of genes and experience in the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
nurture works on what nature provides
Dual Processing (Two-Track Mind)
the principle that our mind processes information at the same time on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
feels like our body's chief executive. your awareness at the given moment
processing information outside of our awareness
the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive. (ex: Carl Rogers).
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it.
-"I knew it all along phenomenon"
-ex: give half a group a true psychological finding and give the other half the opposite result
We think we know more than we do
Perceiving order in random events
Even in random, unrelated date we find patterns. Random sequences often then don't look random
Part of the scientific method. Explains behaviors or events by offering ideas that organize what we have observed
-linking facts to underlying principles
Proof that something happens and how it happens
-repeated experimental observations
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
-"if... then statement"
A carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations)used in a research study
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different situations, to see whether the basic finding can be reproduced.
describe behaviors by using case studies, naturalistic observations, or surveys
Associate different factors
Manipulate, or vary, factors to discover their effects
A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
A descriptive technique of observing and reordering behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation.
-does not explain behavior but describes it
-ex:parenting practices in different cultures
A descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of that group
-asking people to report their own behaviors or opinions
every person in the entire population has an equal chance of being picked
A measure of the extent to which two events vary together, and thus of how well either one predicts the other
(correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but it does not prove causation)
the mathematical expression of the relationship ranging from -1.00 to +1.00. With 0 indicating no relationship.
Above 0 to +1.00
Indicates a direct relationship
Two things increase or decrease together
Below 0 to -1.00
Indicates an inverse relationship
One thing increases, the other decreases
-example: excessive video games, poor games
The demonstration of how one variable influences (or the effect of a variable) another variable or other variables.
researchers vary one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
-manipulating the factors of interest
-holding constant ("controlling") other factors
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance (minimizes preexisting differences)
group exposed to the treatment; one version of the independent variable (manipulates a factor to determine its effects)
cause and effect
the group not exposed to the treatment; serves as a comparison with the experimental group for judging the effect of the treatment
The Double Blind Procedure
neither those taking part in the study nor those collecting the data know which group is receiving the treatment
results caused by expectations alone
-ex: people have felt better after receiving a phony mood-enhancing drugs
in an experiment, the factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied
the factor that is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated
giving people enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate
Which variable is most relevant to understanding the links between hormone levels and sexual motivation?
This Greek philosopher____ believed that the heart is the source of our personality?
Psychologist who emphasizes the importance of unconscious influence in her work. Conceptualizes her work from a ____ perspective.
Many people are guided by gut feelings or an "instinctive awareness"; that is they are guided by what?
The process of weighing,synthesizing, and evaluating evidence is called ___ thinking
A tendency to notice and remember instances in which our premonitions of disaster are subsequently followed by unfortunate events in most likely to contribute to
perceiving order in random events
A placebo might be given to members of the ___ group
A research technique in which behavior is described in its everyday environment
Dr Macpherson believes that the way students organize and think about the information in their textbooks will strongly influence their ability to later remember and use what they have studied. Dr. Macpherson's ideas most directly illustrate the ____ perspective.
A biophysical approach is one that requires the use of?
many levels of analysis
Leola is reading about the nature/nurture debate in psychology. She will find that most psychologists have reached what conclusion about this debate?
Both nature and nurture influence our psychological development
Martavis is wondering whether extrasensory perception (ESP) really exists. If he is using the steps of the critical thinking, what is the first thing he should ask himself?
"What am I being asked to accept or believe about ESP?"
Your roommate tells you that he is planning to conduct an observational study for his senior thesis. What would you ask to demonstrate that you understand how observational studies are designed?
Will your research take place in the lab or in the natural environment?
Hypotheses are best described as
As scientists, psychologists adopt an attitude of skepticism because they believe that
unproven claims about human behavior need to be tested
Heather claims that her dreams accurately predict future events. Her sister, however, insists that Heather's belief needs to be supported with evidence. Heather's sister best illustrates the scientific studies of
Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population?
Recognizing that our explanations for our own and others' behaviors may be incorrect best illustrate an element of the scientific attitude known as
Which of the following is a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together?
Which school of thought in the 1960s most clearly emphasized the importance of satisfying our needs for love and acceptance?
In a psychological experiment, researchers are interested in studying the potential effects of the ____ variable.
The science of behavior and mental processes is called
Dr. Veenstra conducts basic research on the impact of racial prejudice on behavior. Dr. Veenstra is most likely a ___ psychologist
A statement describing how a researcher manipulates an independent variable is known as an
To make sure a new scientific finding is reliable, psychological researchers are most likely to engage in
A descriptive method in which one individual or group is studied in great depth is called a
After carefully studying how three single parents dealt with the loss of their jobs, Dr. Phong began to overestimate the national rate of unemployment. In this instance, Dr. Phong should be warned that ___ may be misleading
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment being tested is called the ___ group
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What evidence suggests that it is real? Why do some psychologists debate its existence?
What is the key element of Carl Rogers' personality theory?
method of psychological research, providing descriptive information, in which subjects are observed as they go about their usual activities
A woman alone in a house ignores the creaking sounds she hears and experiences no stress. Another woman might hear the same sounds, suspect an intruder, and become alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of: