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71 terms

Chapter Four: Sensation and Perception

AP Psychology Review Term List Pacific American School
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transduction
signals are transformed into neural impulse.
sensory adaptation
decreasing responsiveness to stimuli due to constant stimulation
sensory habituation
our perceptions of sensations is partially due to how focused we are on them
cock tail party phenomenon
involuntary pay attention or turn to a far distant stimuli.
Cornea
transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image
pupil
contractile aperture in the iris of the eye
iris
muscles that control pupils
lens
a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images
accomodation
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
retina
the light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball
cones
cells that are activated by color; they're concentrated toward the center of retina
rods
cells that respond to black and white color; their cells outnumber cones
fovea
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
ganglion cells
the specialized cells which lie behind the bipolar cells whose axons form the optic nerve which takes the information to the brain
lateral geniculate nucleus
specific region in the thalamus
blind spot
the point where the optic nerve enters the retina
optic chiasm
the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement; Hubel and Weisel
Trichromatic Theory
detected three color of blue, red, and green; the cones are activated to combined colors and to produce colors of visual spectrum
Afterimages
looked at color for long time and afterward see the color on different background.
color blindness
individual with dichromatic color can't se either green or red shades
Opponent Process
sensory receptors with two opposites colors such as blue/yellow pairs, red/green pairs and black/white pairs
Amplitude
height of the waves and determines the loudness of the sound(decibel)
Frequency
length of the waves and determine the pitch(megahertz)
pinna
outer ear
ear canal
auditory canal , either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
eardrum
tympanic membrane that vibrates as the sound waves hit it.
hammer
malleus; eardrum
anvil
incus ;eardrum
oval window
membrane very similar to the eardrum
organ of Corti
neurons activated by movement of hair cells
Place
hair cells in the cochlea responds t different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea
Frequency
lower tones are sense at rate which cells fire.
Conduction deafness
something goes wrong with the system of conducting the sound to the cochlea
Nerve(sensorimotor deafness)
hair cells in the cochlea are damaged with noise
Gate control
how we experience pain the way we do; pain message send, gate swing open for it and shut for a low priority message
Papillae
bumps on the tongue
taste buds
sense receptors in the tongue that respond to sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami, and perhaps fat
olfactory bulb
one of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities
olfactory receptor cells
sensory receptors for smell, constantly replaced every 30 to 60 days. when stimulated by airborne molecules, the stimulation gets passed to its axons which bundle to create the olfactory nerve
Vestibular sense
a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head
kinesthetic
sense that gives us feedback about position and orientation of specific body part
absolute threshold
smallest amount of stimulus or light we can detect
subliminal
below the threshold of conscious perception
placebo effect
any effect that seems to be a consequence of administering a placebo
difference threshold(noticeable difference)
smallest amount of change needed in a stimuli before we detect a change.
Weber's Law
the change needed in proportional to the original intensity of the stimulus. The more intense the stimulus, the more it will need to change before we notice a difference
Signal Detection theory
the effects of the distractions and interference we experience while perceiving the world
response criteria (receiver operating characteristics)
how motivated we are to detect certain stimuli and what we expect to perceive
false positive
we think we perceive a stimulus that is not there.
false negative
not perceiving a stimulus that is present
top down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
schemata
mental representations of how we expect the world to be; it influences how we perceive the world.
perceptual set
predisposition to perceiving something in a certain way
bottom up processing (feature analysis)
the opposite of top down processing
Gestalt psychology
(psychology) a theory of psychology that emphasizes the importance of configurational properties
proximity
objects that are close together are most likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
similarity
objects that are similar in appearance are most likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
connectedness
objects that form a continuous form are most liiely to be perceived as same group
closure
similar to top bottom processing; objects make recognizable images are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group even if the image contains gaps that the mind need to fill in.
size constancy
objects closer to eyes will produce bigger images on our retinas, but we take distance into account in our estimation in size
shape constancy
objects viewed from different angles will produce different shapes on our retinas, but we know it maintain constant.
color constancy
we perceive objects as being a constant color even the light reflecting off the object change
stroboscopic effect
Images in a series of still pictures presented at a certain speed will appear to be moving
phi phenomenon
A series of lightbulb turned on and off at a particular rate will appear to be one moving light
auto kinetic effect
spot of light is projected steadily nto the same place on a wall of an otherwise dark room and people are asked to stare at it, they will report seeing it move.
visual cliff experiment
Gibson; infant may perceive depth
linear perspective
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
relative size cue
you would draw boxcars closer to the viewer as larger than the engine off in the distance
interposition cue
objects that block the view to other objects must be closer to us
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone