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transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
the specialized cells which lie behind the bipolar cells whose axons form the optic nerve which takes the information to the brain
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement; Hubel and Weisel
detected three color of blue, red, and green; the cones are activated to combined colors and to produce colors of visual spectrum
sensory receptors with two opposites colors such as blue/yellow pairs, red/green pairs and black/white pairs
auditory canal , either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
hair cells in the cochlea responds t different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea
how we experience pain the way we do; pain message send, gate swing open for it and shut for a low priority message
sense receptors in the tongue that respond to sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami, and perhaps fat
one of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities
olfactory receptor cells
sensory receptors for smell, constantly replaced every 30 to 60 days. when stimulated by airborne molecules, the stimulation gets passed to its axons which bundle to create the olfactory nerve
a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head
difference threshold(noticeable difference)
smallest amount of change needed in a stimuli before we detect a change.
the change needed in proportional to the original intensity of the stimulus. The more intense the stimulus, the more it will need to change before we notice a difference
Signal Detection theory
the effects of the distractions and interference we experience while perceiving the world
response criteria (receiver operating characteristics)
how motivated we are to detect certain stimuli and what we expect to perceive
top down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
mental representations of how we expect the world to be; it influences how we perceive the world.
(psychology) a theory of psychology that emphasizes the importance of configurational properties
objects that are close together are most likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
objects that are similar in appearance are most likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
similar to top bottom processing; objects make recognizable images are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group even if the image contains gaps that the mind need to fill in.
objects closer to eyes will produce bigger images on our retinas, but we take distance into account in our estimation in size
objects viewed from different angles will produce different shapes on our retinas, but we know it maintain constant.
we perceive objects as being a constant color even the light reflecting off the object change
Images in a series of still pictures presented at a certain speed will appear to be moving
A series of lightbulb turned on and off at a particular rate will appear to be one moving light
auto kinetic effect
spot of light is projected steadily nto the same place on a wall of an otherwise dark room and people are asked to stare at it, they will report seeing it move.
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
relative size cue
you would draw boxcars closer to the viewer as larger than the engine off in the distance
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