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Chapter 7
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Terms in this set (60)
What does your research question help to guide?
hypothesis
What does a hypothesis help you determine?
techniques to be used
This is defined as an "educated guess" which describes the relationship between variables
hypothesis
This is a more testable version of a research question.
hypothesis
In a study, a __________ is drawn from a ___________.
sample/larger population
Optimally, it is possible to generalize you results from ________ to _________.
your sample / a larger population
Which of the following refers to the group you wish to generalize your results to?
population
Hypothesis testing relates to:
the sample
Which is formulated first?
the null hupothesis
Which is formulated second?
the research hypothesis
Unless you have sufficient evidence otherwise, you must assume that...
the null hypothesis is true
Which of the following is an implied hypothesis?
the null hypothesis
Which of the following can be tested directly?
the research hypothesis
Which of the following can only be tested indirectly?
the null
If there is no difference between sample and population values, you will have:
no sampling error
This is a statement of equality between sets of variables:
a null hypothesis
This is a hypothesis that reflects the difference between groups, but does not specify the direction of the difference.
a nondirectional research hypothesis
This is a hypothesis that reflects the difference between groups and also specifies the direction of the difference.
a directional research hypothesis
Which of the following is a directional test?
a one tailed test
Which of the following is a nondirectional test?
a two tailed test
What does generalizability mean?
results may be applied to the population studied
A representative sample allows you to generalize your results to
a larger population
The group you actually collect data from for your study is known as the __________.
sample
Which of the following provides you with a measure of how well your sample approximates the population?
sampling error
In order to help ensure generalizability, which of the following should be true about your sample?
it is representative
Which of the following represents a research hypothesis?
H1: X1<X2
Which of the following represents a null hypothesis?
H0:M1=M2
A greater difference between the sample statistic and the population parameter means that you will have:
higher sampling error
A smaller difference between the sample statistic and the population parameter means that you will have
lower sampling error
What test would you want to use to test a nondirectional research hypothesis?
two tailed test
What test would you want to use to test a directional research hypothesis?
one-tailed
Null hypotheses refer to the following:
the population
Research hypotheses refer to the following:
the sample
What type of hypothesis posits no relationship between the variables in your study?
null hypothesis
What type of hypothesis posits a difference between groups where the difference is specified?
directional hypothesis
What type of hypothesis posits a difference between groups where the difference is not specified?
nondirectional hypothesis
Which of the following symbols represents the null hypothesis?
H0
Which of the following symbols represents the first research hypothesis?
H1
Which of the following symbols represents the theoretical average of the population for one group?
M1
A hypothesis is best defined as ______________.
an educated guess
What are the two main categories of hypotheses?
null and research
A sample is best defined as ________________.
a smaller group selected from a given population
When the sample accurately represents the population, the results of the study are said to have a high degree of _____________.
generalizability
Which of the following is a measure of how well a sample approximates the characteristics of a population?
sampling error
Which of the following means "before the fact"?
a priori
A statement that postulates a relationship between variables is referred to as a ___________.
research hypothesis
There is no differnce in the weight between rats fed low-fiber diets and rats fed high fiber diets," is an example of a(n) _______________.
null hypothesis
If you hypothesize that there will be a difference between test scores from classroom A and classroom B, but you do not hypothesize the direction, you would have a:
nondirectional research hypothesis
If you were to hypothesize that test scores from classroom A will be higher than test scores from classroom B, you have a:
directional research hypothesis
Which of the following is an example of a nondirectional hypothesis?
there is a relationship between a high fat diet and weight gain.
Which of the following is an example of a directional hypothesis?
there is a positive relationship between a high fat diet and weight gain.
When writing a null hypothesis, what type of letters are used?
greek
When writing a research hypothesis, what type of letters are used?
latin (english)
roman symbols
The null hypothesis refers to the ___________, whereas the research hypothesis refers to the __________.
population/sample
Individuals in a representative sample should match as closely as possible to the characteristics of the population.T/F
true
Sampling error relates to how well a population approximates the characteristics of a sample.T/F
false
answer: how well a sample approximates the characteristics of a population.
What is the most important role of a hypothesis?
to reflect the general problem statement or question that was the motivation for asking the research question in the first place.
page 127
Why is it important to have a precise and clear research question?
answer on page 127
this research question will be your guide in the creation of a hypothesis.
The null hypothesis can only be tested indirectly.T/F
true
Having a large degree of sampling error does not affect generalizability.T/F
false
page 128
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