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Anatomy & Physiology - Chapter 14 - The Heart and Heart Disease
Terms in this set (158)
The continuous one-way circuit of blood through the blood vessels that transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues via the cardiovascular system.
The heart is a hollow, muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that pumps oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the trillions of cells of the body. It beats an average of 60 to 100 times a minute for your entire lifetime. Your heart is located in the center of your chest, slightly to the left, in an area called the mediastinum. It has three layers: the outer lining, called the epicardium; the middle muscular layer, called the myocardium; and the inner lining, called the endocardium. The heart is enclosed in a fibrous membrane called the pericardium, or pericardial sac, which also contains a small amount of pericardial fluid. This fluid acts as a lubricant that reduces friction as the heart repeatedly contracts and relaxes.
Creates each heartbeat. Each cardiac cycle is quite rapid, taking an average of just 0.8 second. Blood pressure, created by the pumping of blood, is written as two numbers, one over the other: 120/80. The upper number, the systolic pressure, reflects the highest pressure exerted against artery walls during ventricular contraction, or systole. The lower number, the diastolic pres- sure, reflects the lowest pressure exerted against artery walls during ventricular relaxation, or diastole.
The heart pumps average of about 72 per minute and are carried on unceasingly for a lifetime. The beating of the heart can also be affected by emotions.
The pulse may be palpated in any place that allows an artery to be compressed near the surface of the body, such as at the neck (carotid artery), on the inside of the elbow (brachial artery), at the wrist (radial artery), at the groin (femoral artery), behind the knee (popliteal artery)
The middle section of the chest cavity and is located between the lungs and /or thorax.
''Apex'' of Heart
Inferior or BOTTOM portion of the heart.The largest part of the heart, the lower left area.This site is best for auscultating (listening to) sounds from the mitral valve and is where the apical pulse is best heard
Listening to the apical pulse for 1 full minute is considered the most accurate method of measuring heart rate and is the preferred method in situations where accuracy is very important.
''Base'' of Heart
Superior or TOP portion of heart where great vessels attach.
Three tissue Layers of the Heart
Endocardium - INNER most layer of heart were blood touches.
Myocardium - MIDDLE layer of heart muscle.
Epicardium - OUTERMOST layer of heart.
A thin, smooth layer of epithelial cells that lines the heart's interior. The endocardium provides a smooth surface for easy flow as blood travels through the heart. Extensions of this membrane cover the flaps (cusps) of the heart valves.
The heart muscle, is the thickest layer and pumps blood through the vessels.
Epicardium also known as ''Visceral Pericardium''
A serous membrane that forms the thin, outermost layer of the heart wall. It is also considered the visceral layer of the pericardium.
A serous membrane enclosing the heart, consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an INNER DOUBLE layer of serous membrane.
A fluid-filled space that surrounds the heart to reduce friction.
The outer layer of the pericardium which is a conical sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels.
Unique junctions called intercalated discs (gap junctions) link the cells together and define their borders. Intercalated discs are the major portal for cardiac cell-to-cell communication
Pumps blood low in oxygen content to the lungs through the pulmonary circuit.
The left side pumps highly oxygenated blood to the remainder of the body through the systemic circuit.
The UPPER chambers on the right and left sides. perform about 30% of the work
The LOWER chambers on the right and left side, are forceful pumps. perform the other 70% of the work
The largest artery; carries blood out of the left muscle of the heart
Structure that prevents fluid from flowing backward, as in the heart, veins, lymphatic vessels
Flow of Blood through Heart
- Superior and inferior Venae Cavae
-Left and right pulmonary arteries
-Left and right lungs
-Four pulmonary veins
-Ascending and descending aortae
A thin-walled chamber that receives the blood returning from the body tissues. This blood, which is low in oxygen, is carried in veins, the blood vessels leading back to the heart. The superior vena cava brings blood from the head, chest, and arms; the inferior vena cava delivers blood from the trunk and legs. A third vessel that opens into the right atrium brings blood from the heart muscle itself.
Pumps the venous blood received from the right atrium to the lungs. It pumps into a large pulmonary trunk, which then divides into right and left pulmonary arteries. Branches of these arteries carry blood to the lungs. An artery is a vessel that takes blood from the heart to the tissues. Note that the pulmonary arteries in are colored blue because they are carrying blood low in oxygen, unlike other arteries, which carry blood high in oxygen.
Receives blood high in oxygen content as it returns from the lungs in pulmonary veins. Note that the pulmonary veins in are colored red because they are carrying blood high in oxygen content, unlike other veins, which carry blood low in oxygen.
The chamber with the thickest wall, pumps highly oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. This blood goes first into the aorta, the largest artery, and then into the branching systemic arteries that take blood to the tissues. The heart's apex, the lower pointed region, is formed by the wall of the left ventricle. Is the largest and most muscular chamber, because it works harder than the others
Divides the right and left chambers of the heart
Separates right and left atria
Separates right and left ventricles
are unique in that they are the only veins in the body that transport oxygen-rich blood.
A large vein that carries blood into the right atrium of the heart, superior vena cava or inferior vena cava
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
A entrance valve that are between the atria and ventricles.
Exit valves because each flap of these valves resembles a half-moon.
Right Atrioventricular (AV) valve
Because it has three cusps, or flaps, that open and close. When this valve is open, blood flows freely from the right atrium into the right ventricle. When the right ventricle begins to contract, however, the valve is closed by blood squeezed backward against the cusps. With the valve closed, blood cannot return to the right atrium but must flow forward into the pulmonary arterial trunk.
Left atrioventricular (AV) valve
Bicuspid valve and/or Mitral valve
(named for a miter, the pointed, two-sided hat worn by bishops). It has two heavy cusps that permit blood to flow freely from the left atrium into the left ventricle. The cusps close when the left ventricle begins to contract; this closure prevents blood from returning to the left atrium and ensures the forward flow of blood into the aorta.
Both the right and left AV valves are attached by means of thin fibrous threads to columnar muscles, arising from the walls of the ventricles.
The function of these threads, is to stabilize the valve flaps when the ventricles contract so that the blood's force will not push the valves up into the atria. In this manner, they help to prevent a backflow of blood when the heart beats.
Pulmonary Valve and/or Pulmonic Valve,
A semilunar valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk that leads to the lungs. As soon as the right ventricle begins to relax from a contraction, pressure in that chamber drops. The higher pressure in the pulmonary artery, described as back pressure, closes the valve and pre-vents blood from returning to the ventricle.
A semilunar valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta. After contraction of the left ventricle, back pressure closes the aortic valve and prevents the back flow of blood from the aorta into the ventricle.
Circulation of blood from the heart to the heart muscle
A dilated vein that opens into the right atrium near the inferior vena cava
Contraction phase of the heartbeat
Relaxation phase of the heartbeat
Contraction of atria pump additional blood into the ventricles.
Contraction of ventricles pump blood into aorta and pulmonary arteries.
Atria fill with blood, which flows directly into the relaxed ventricles
Cardiac Output (CO)
The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute. It is equal to the heart rate multiplied by the stroke volume. So if there are 70 beats per minute, and 70 ml blood is ejected with each beat of the heart, the cardiac output is 4900 ml/ minute.
CO = HR x SV
Stroke Volume (SV)
The volume of blood ejected from the ventricle with each beat.
Heart Rate (HR)
The number of times the heart beats per minute.
The difference between the rate at which the heart pumps blood and its maximum capacity for pumping blood at any given time. A measurement of the cardiac reserve may be a health indicator for some medical condition.
cardiac conduction system
A group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers.
Nodes in the heart
This action potential is generated by specialized tissue within the heart and spreads over structures that form the heart's conduction system. Two of these structures are tissue masses called nodes, and the remainder consists of specialized fibers that branch through the myocardium.
Sinoatrial (SA) Node ''pacemaker''
The natural pacemaker of the heart. It controls the heart rate by generating electrical impulses and then sending electrical signals through the heart muscle, causing the heart to contract and pump blood throughout the body.
An electrical relay station, slowing the electrical current sent by the sinoatrial (SA) node before the signal is permitted to pass down through to the ventricles. This delay ensures that the atria have an opportunity to fully contract before the ventricles are stimulated.
Atrioventricular (AV) Bundle ''bundle of His''
The bundle of His is an important part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, as it transmits impulses from the atrioventricular node, located at the inferior end of the interatrial septum, to the ventricles of the heart. These fibers distribute the impulse to the ventricular muscle.
During the ventricular contraction portion of the cardiac cycle, the Purkinje fibers carry the contraction impulse from both the left and right bundle branch to the myocardium of the ventricles.
The conduction of the electrical impulses throughout the atria is seen on the ECG as the P wave. As the electrical activity is spreading throughout the atria, it travels via specialized pathways, known as internodal tracts, from the SA node to the AV node.
The order in which impulses travel through the heart
The heartbeat happens as follows:
(1.) The SA node (called the pacemaker of the heart) sends out an electrical impulse.
(2.) The upper heart chambers (atria) contract.
(3.) The AV node sends an impulse into the ventricles.
(4.) The lower heart chambers (ventricles) contract or pump.
(5.) The SA node sends another signal to the atria to contract, which starts the cycle over again.
This cycle of an electrical signal followed by a contraction is one heartbeat.
A normal heart rhythm originating at the SA node.
Sympathetic nervous system
Stimulation increases the heart rate in response to increased activity. During a fight-or-flight response, the sympathetic nerves can boost the cardiac output on average four to five times the resting value. Sympathetic fibers increase the contraction rate by stimulating the SA and AV nodes. They also increase the contraction force by acting directly on the fibers of the myocardium. These actions translate into increased cardiac output.
Parasympathetic nervous system
Stimulation decreases the heart rate to restore homeostasis. The parasympathetic nerve that sup-plies the heart is the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X). It slows the heart rate by acting on the SA and AV nodes
A relatively slow heart rate of less than 60 beats/min. During rest and sleep, the heart may beat less than 60 beats/min, but the rate usually does not fall below 50 beats/min.
Refers to a heart rate of more than 100 beats/min. Tachycardia is normal during exercise or stress, or with excessive caffeine intake, but may also occur with certain disorders.
A regular variation in heart rate caused by changes in the rate and depth of breathing. It is a normal phenomenon.
Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) also called ''Ventricular Extrasystole""
Ventricular Contraction initiated by Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node. It can be experienced as a palpitation between normal heartbeats or as a skipped beat. PVC may be initiated by caffeine, nicotine, or psychologic stresses. They are also common in people with heart disease.
Blood-pressure readings reflect ?
the amount of pres- sure exerted against the arterial walls during the ventricular contraction and ventricular relaxation phases of the cardiac cycle. A reading of 140/90 or higher is considered high blood pressure by the American Heart Association.
This device is used to monitor heart rate and to measure the saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) in the blood. The pulse oximeter is able to differentiate between oxygenated and deoxygenated blood by passing two beams of light, infrared and red, through the finger to a light detector.
''Lup'' and/or S1
''AV valves closing''
The first heart sound (S1), the "lub," is a longer, lower-pitched sound that occurs at the start of ventricular systole. It is caused by a combination of events, mainly closure of the AV valves. This action causes vibrations in the blood passing through the valves and in the tissue surrounding the valves.
''Dup'' and/or S2
''Semilumar valves closing''
The second heart sound (S2), the "dup," is shorter and sharper. It occurs at the beginning of ventricular relaxation and is caused largely by sudden closure of the semilunar valves.
Abnormal heart sound and is usually due to faulty valve action. For example, if a valve fails to close tightly and blood leaks back, a murmur is heard.
The abnormal narrowing of a passage in the body.
These murmurs are called functional or innocent heart murmurs. A small percentage of heart murmurs are associated with heart disease. These are known as organic or pathological heart murmurs.
Innocent heart murmurs are harmless sounds made by the blood circulating normally through the heart's chambers and valves or through blood vessels near the heart. They can be common during infancy and childhood and often disappear by adulthood. They're sometimes known as "functional" or "physiologic" murmurs.
This relatively simple instrument is used to convey sounds from within the patient's body to an examiner's ear.
electrocardiograph ECG or EKG
Is used to record the electrical activity of the heart as it functions. This activity corresponds to the depolarization and repolarization that occur during an action potential. The ECG may reveal certain myocardial injuries. Electrodes (leads) placed on the skin surface pick up electric activity, and the ECG tracing, or electrocardiogram, represents this activity as waves. These waves are identified by consecutive letters of the alphabet. The P wave corresponds to depolarization of the atria; the QRS wave corresponds to depolarization of the ventricles. The T wave shows ventricular repolarization, but atrial repolariation is hidden by the QRS wave. Cardiologists use changes in the waves and the intervals between them to diagnose heart damage and arrhythmias.
In right heart catheterization, an extremely thin tube (catheter) is passed through the veins of the right arm or right groin and then into the right side of heart. This procedure gives diagnostic information and monitors heart function.
An instrument for examining deep structures with x-rays, issued to show the route taken by the catheter. The tube is passed all the way through the pulmonary valve into the large lung arteries. Blood samples are obtained along the way for testing, and pressure readings are taken. In left heart catheterization, a catheter is passed through an artery in the left groin or arm to the heart. The tube may be passed through the aortic valve in to the left ventricle for studies of pressure and volume in that chamber.
During catheterization, dye can be injected into the coronary arteries to map vascular damage.
Coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA)
Uses advanced radiographic techniques for visualizing the coronary arteries. The necessary dye is injected intravenously and abnormalities in the coronary arteries can be seen in computed tomography (CT) scans.
Consists of sound waves generated at a frequency above the human ear's range of sensitivity.
echocardiography , also known as ultrasound cardiography
High-frequency sound waves are sent to the heart from a small instrument on the chest surface. The ultrasound waves bounce off the heart and are recorded as they return, showing the heart in action.
Movement of the echoes is traced on an electronic instrument called an oscilloscope and recorded on film. (The same principle is employed by submarines to detect ships.) The method is safe and painless, and it does not use x-rays. It provides information on the size and shape of heart structures, on cardiac function, and on possible heart defects.
Inflammation of the endocardium covering the valves.
Inflammation of the heart muscle. In, severe cases, the heart muscle becomes damaged and may undergo necrosis.
Inflammation of the pericardium, serous or fibrous membrane surrounding the heart.
any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
arrhythmia in which atria beat too rapidly, but in a regular pattern
a muscular twitching involving individual muscle fibers acting without coordination
b : very rapid irregular contractions of the muscle fibers of the heart resulting in a lack of synchronism between heartbeat and pulse.
a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT). A defibrillator delivers a dose of electric current (often called a countershock) to the heart.
an abnormal heart rhythm where the heart beats too slowly (bradycardia). In this condition, the electrical signals that tell the heart to contract are partially or totally blocked between the upper chambers (atria) and the lower chambers (ventricles).
thickening, loss of elasticity, and loss of contractility of arterial walls; commonly called hardening of the arteries
high blood pressure
low blood pressure
a fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body
a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls. The build-up of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls.
coronary artery disease (CAD)
narrowing of the lumen, or inner open space of a vessel, of heart arteries due to arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis
Atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
a thickening and hardening of the walls of the coronary arteries.
If a vessel becomes completely occluded (blocked), then the heart muscle downstream dies from a lack of oxygen.
myocardial infarction (MI) or a heart attack
a sudden and sometimes fatal occurrence of coronary thrombosis, typically resulting in the death of part of a heart muscle.
Microscopic vessel through which exchange takes place between the blood and the tissues. tiny, thin-walled vessels that allow for exchanges between systems. These exchanges occur between the blood and the body cells and between the blood and the air in the lung tissues
Vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Arteries have thick walls and feel rubbery; veins have thin walls and feel flabby
Arteries = thick walls, feel rubbery
veins = thin walls,feel flabby
Vessel between a small artery and a capillary
Vessel a capillary and a vein
Vessel that carries blood towards the heart
group of disorders generally defined as a reduction in the mass of circulating red blood cells
weakening and bulging of part of a vessel wall
heart pain or other discomfort felt in the chest, shoulders, arms, jaw, or neck, caused by insufficient blood and oxygen to the heart; usually a symptom of heart disease
loss of heart rhythm (rhythmic irregularity)
the most common form of arteriosclerosis, marked by deposits of cholesterol, lipids, and calcium on the walls of arteries, which may restrict blood flow
common irregular heart rhythm marked by uncontrolled atrial quivering and a rapid ventricular response
soft blowing sound caused by turbulent blood flow in a vessel
serious condition in which the heart becomes compressed from an excessive collection of fluid or blood between the pericardial membrane and the heart
group of conditions in which the heart muscle has deteriorated and functions less effectively
congestive heart failure (CHF)
inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body, resulting in lung congestion and dyspnea
condition of right ventricular enlargement or dilation from increased right ventricular pressure; also called pulmonary heart disease or right-sided heart failure
deep-vein thrombosis (DVT)
development of a blood clot in a deep vein, usually in the legs; also known as thrombophlebitis
serious condition that arises as a complication of another disorder, in which widespread, unrestricted microvascular blood clotting occurs; primary symptom is hemorrhage
undissolved matter floating in blood or lymph fluid that may cause an occlusion and infarction
infection of the inner lining of the heart that may cause vegetation to form within one or more heart chambers or valves
quivering of heart muscle fibers instead of an effective heartbeat
blood pressure that is consistently higher than 140 systolic, 90 diastolic, or both
temporary reduction in blood supply to a localized area of tissue
rare, life-threatening type of hypertension evidenced by optic- nerve (eye) edema and extremely high systolic and diastolic blood pressure
condition in which the mitral valve does not close tightly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium; also called mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence
condition in which the mitral valve fails to open properly, there- by impeding normal blood flow and increasing pressure within the left atrium and lungs
blowing or swishing sound in the heart, due to turbulent blood flow or backflow through a leaky valve
myocardial infarction (MI)
death of heart-muscle cells due to occlusion of a vessel; commonly called heart attack
condition in which the middle layer of the heart wall becomes inflamed
acute or chronic condition in which the fibrous membrane surrounding the heart becomes inflamed
peripheral artery disease (PAD)
condition of partial or complete obstruction of the arteries of the arms or legs; similar to peripheral vascular disease (PVD), which includes both arteries and veins
chronic disorder marked by increased number and mass of all bone marrow cells, especially RBCs, with increased blood viscosity and a tendency to develop blood clots
disorder that affects blood vessels in the fingers, toes, ears, and nose, marked by vessel constriction and reduced blood flow in response to triggers such as cold temperature; also known as Raynaud gangrene or Raynaud phenomenon
rheumatic heart disease
complication of rheumatic fever in which inflammation and damage occur to parts of the heart, usually the valves
syndrome of inadequate perfusion (circulation of blood, nutrients, and oxygen through tissues and organs) as a result of hypotension or low blood pressure
thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO)
type of vascular disease associated with tobacco use, marked by inflammation and clot formation within small vessels of the hands and feet, which may lead to gangrene and surgical amputation; sometimes called Buerger's disease
bulging, distended veins due to incompetent valves, most commonly in the legs
Diagnostic or therapeutic radiography (radiological imaging) of the heart and blood vessels
Automated external defibrillator (AED)
Small computer-driven defibrillator that analyzes the patient's rhythm, selects the appropriate energy level, charges the machine, and delivers a shock to the patient
Automatic implanted cardioverter defibrillator (AICD)
Very small defibrillator, surgically implanted in patients with a high risk for sudden cardiac death, that automatically detects and treats life-threatening arrhythmias
Evaluation of the heart vessels and valves via the injection of dye that shows up under radiology
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Emergency procedure that provides manual external cardiac compression and sometimes artificial respiration
Restoration of normal sinus rhythm (NSR) by chemical or electrical means
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
Surgical creation of an alternate route for blood flow around an area of coronary arterial obstruction
Delivery of an electric shock with the goal of ending ventricular fibrillation and restoring NSR
Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)
Creation and study of graphic records (electrocardiograms) of electric currents originating in the heart
Portable monitoring device that transmits heart rhythms by telephone to a central laboratory, where dysrhythmias can be detected and analyzed
Portable device worn by a patient during normal activity that records heart rhythm for up to 24 hours
International normalized ratio (INR)
Standardized method of checking the prothrombin time (PT); used to monitor and adjust warfarin (Coumadin) dosage in order to maintain a balance between clot prevention and excessive bleeding
Device that can trigger the mechanical contractions of the heart by emitting periodic electrical discharges
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
Measure of blood-clotting time, used to monitor heparin therapy; heparin is an anticoagulant medication that slows the clotting time of blood. A balance must be maintained between clot prevention and excessive bleeding.
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
Method of treating a narrowed coronary artery via inflation and deflation of a balloon on a doublelumen catheter inserted through the right femoral artery
Prothrombin time (PT)
Procedure that measures the clotting time of blood; used with the international normalized ratio (INR) to assess levels of anticoagulation in patients taking warfarin (Coumadin). A balance must be maintained between clot prevention and excessive bleeding.
Treadmill test that can show if the blood supply is reduced in the arteries that supply the heart
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)
Study of the heart via a probe placed in the esophagus
Protein released into the body by damaged heart muscle, considered the most accurate blood test to confirm the diagnosis of an MI
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Anatomy and Physiology: The Heart
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A&P ch14 the heart and heart disease
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