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Ch 10 Motivation and Emotions


an aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need


the body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state

intrinsic motivation

motivation based on internal factors such as organismic needs (competence, relatedness, and autonomy), as well as curiosity, challenge, and fun

extrinsic motivation

motivation that involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's theory that human needs must be satisfied in the following sequence: physiological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization


the detection of a physiological need

ventromedial hypothalamus

involved in reducing hunger and restricting eating

lateral hypothalamus

involved in stimulating eating


feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal (such as a fast heartbeat), conscious experience (thinking about being in love with someone), and behavioral expression (a smile or grimace)

James-Lange theory

the theory that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment

Cannon-Bard theory

the proposition that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously

two-factor theory of emotion

Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is determined by two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling

facial feedback hypothesis

the idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them

spinal injury studies

there was no difference in range of emotions of people with no spinal injuries from people with spinal injuries

facial feedback

some research suggests that different patterns of physiological activity are associated with specific facial expressions and related emotional feelings
(ex. if you inhibit facial expression of smiling by having subjects hold a pen with their lips, while viewing a cartoon, the cartoon is rated less funny than by control subjects holding pen in their teeth)

sexual motivation

In males, levels of sexual motivation are not strongly related to levels of sex hormones (tested in lab rats)


1.) Detection of physiological need
2.) Search behavior
3.) Recognition of needed item-These first three in hypothalamus
4.) Ingestion - Brain stem


For some individuals, environmental food-related stimuli exert a greater influence on food intake than in most people
(Subjects stay in room with no windows and without timepieces. Time on wall clock is manipulated while food is present) (For overweight subjects, food intake was stimulated by fast clock when it read noon)

osmotic thirst

Higher concentration of electrolytes, such as sodium, in extracellular fluid surrounding cells

hypovolemic thirst

Thirst motivation caused by lower blood volume; cells start surrendering water


Intestines stimulates food intake


inhibits food intake


stimulates food intake

achievement motivation

A history of reward for success motivates individuals to seek opportunities for success. Best achievers seek out moderately challenging tasks with high chance of success. Reward for achievement leads to persisting motivation to achieve
Lack of reward for achievement leads to diminished striving for success

ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus

Participates in the regulation of body weight by regulating meal duration and hours when eating occurs.
Determined what portion of light/dark cycle that you eat during .
When damaged: meals become longer and you start eating outside the usual time frame and meals will be longer overall

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