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Basic Nutrition Final Exam Review

STUDY
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The diet-planning tool, MyPyramid, is available only to health care professionals
False
The focus of the DRIs is to promote health as opposed to exclusively centering on preventing disease
True
Nutrients are
chemical elements or compounds in foods that have specific metabolic functions within the body
All nutrients needed by the body
are supplied by a variety of foods in many different combinations
All people throughout life, as indicated by the DRIs, need
the same nutrients in varying amounts
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
False
Starch is the main source of carbohydrate in the diet
True
Lactose is a very sweet, simple monosaccharide found in a number of foods.
False
Glucose is the form of sugar circulating in the blood
True
Glycogen is an important long-term storage form of energy and large amounts are stored in the liver and muscles
False
Which of the following carbohydrate foods provides energy the quickest?
Orange Juice
A quickly available but limited form of energy is stored in the liver by conversion of glucose to
Glycogen
The current DRIs recommend _______ of a person's total daily caloric intake to come from carbohydrate sources.
45%-65%
The disaccharide sucrose is hydrolyzed to the monosaccharides glucose and
fructose
Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose are
Monosaccharides
Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose are
Disaccharides
What are soluble fibers?
Gums, mucilages, Algal polysaccharides, and most pectins
Cellulose, most hemicelluloses, lignin are
Insoluable
Soluble fiber is noted for its ability to bind bile acids and utimately lower blood chlesterol levels
True
Insoluable fiber is recommended for relief from constipation.
True
Fat has the same energy value as carbohydrate
False
Fat is composed of the same basic chemical elements as carbohydrate.
True
Corn oil is a saturated fat
False
Polyunsaturated fats predominantly come from animal food sources
False
Lipoproteins, produced mainly in the liver, carry fat in the blood
True
The fuel form of fat found in food sources is
triglyceride
Which of the following statements about the saturation of fats is correct
Fats composed of fatty acids with two or more double bonds in their structure are called polyunsaturated
If an individual implemented a low saturated fat diet to lower the risk for heart disease, which of the following foods would more frequently be consumed?
Olive oil and vinegar salad dressing
Once absorbed into the enterocyte, monoglycerides and fatty acids re-form triglycerides, which are then packaged into a lipoprotein called__________ for absorption into the lymphatic structure
chylomicrons
Complete proteins of high biologic value are found in whole grains, dried beans and peas, and nuts.
False
The primary function of dietary protein is to supply the necessary amino acids to build and repair body tissue
True
Protein provides a main source of body heat and muscle energy
False
The average American diet contains a relatively small amount of protein
False
Because they are smaller, infants and young children need less protein per unit of body weight than do adults
False
Healthy adults are in a state of nitrogen balance
True
Positive nitrogen balance exists during periods of rapid growth (e.g., in infancy and adolescence).
True
When negative nitrogen balance exists, an individual is less able to resist infection.
True
Egg protein has a higher biologic value than meat protein
True
Nine of the 20 amino acids are indispensable, meaning that
the body cannot make them and must obtain them from the diet
A complete protein food of high biologic value contains
all nine of the indispensable amino acids in correct proportion to meet human requirements
A state of negative nitrogen balance may occur during periods of
injury or surgery
whats the role of thyroxin in matabolism
regulates the metabolic rate of the body
what are the functions of enzymes
Enzymes act as catalyst
Carotene is preformed vitamin A found in animal food sources
False
Exposure to sunlight produces vitamin D from a cholesterol precursor in the skin
True
Extra vitamin C is stored in the liver to meet tissue infection demands
False
Good sources of vitamin K are found in green, leafy vegetables such as kale and spinach
True
Vitamin A is fat soluble and formed from carotene in plant foods or consumed as the fully formed vitamin in animal foods. Which of the following supplies the greatest amount of this vitamin?
Beef Liver
If you wanted to increase the vitamin C content of your diet, which of the following foods would you choose in larger amounts?
Green peppers, strawberries, and oranges
A large portion of our vitamin K for metabolic needs is produced by intestinal bacteria
True
The formation of prothrombin for normal blood clotting purposes is a primary function of which fat-soluble vitamin?
Vitamin K
Potassium is the major electrolyte controlling the water outside cells.
False
Iodine is associated with iron functions in the body and is called the "iron twin."
False
Which of the following minerals is a trace mineral?
Iron
Which mineral has the following functions: blood clotting, muscle and nerve action, and bone and teeth formation?
Calcium
Potassium is a major mineral
True
fresh fruits and vegetables, meats, and whole grains
food sources of potassium
what are food sources of iron?
liver, meats, egg yolk, whole grains, enriched bread and cereal, dark green veggies, legumes, and nuts