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Basic Nutrition Final Exam Review

The diet-planning tool, MyPyramid, is available only to health care professionals
The focus of the DRIs is to promote health as opposed to exclusively centering on preventing disease
Nutrients are
chemical elements or compounds in foods that have specific metabolic functions within the body
All nutrients needed by the body
are supplied by a variety of foods in many different combinations
All people throughout life, as indicated by the DRIs, need
the same nutrients in varying amounts
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Starch is the main source of carbohydrate in the diet
Lactose is a very sweet, simple monosaccharide found in a number of foods.
Glucose is the form of sugar circulating in the blood
Glycogen is an important long-term storage form of energy and large amounts are stored in the liver and muscles
Which of the following carbohydrate foods provides energy the quickest?
Orange Juice
A quickly available but limited form of energy is stored in the liver by conversion of glucose to
The current DRIs recommend _______ of a person's total daily caloric intake to come from carbohydrate sources.
The disaccharide sucrose is hydrolyzed to the monosaccharides glucose and
Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose are
Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose are
What are soluble fibers?
Gums, mucilages, Algal polysaccharides, and most pectins
Cellulose, most hemicelluloses, lignin are
Soluble fiber is noted for its ability to bind bile acids and utimately lower blood chlesterol levels
Insoluable fiber is recommended for relief from constipation.
Fat has the same energy value as carbohydrate
Fat is composed of the same basic chemical elements as carbohydrate.
Corn oil is a saturated fat
Polyunsaturated fats predominantly come from animal food sources
Lipoproteins, produced mainly in the liver, carry fat in the blood
The fuel form of fat found in food sources is
Which of the following statements about the saturation of fats is correct
Fats composed of fatty acids with two or more double bonds in their structure are called polyunsaturated
If an individual implemented a low saturated fat diet to lower the risk for heart disease, which of the following foods would more frequently be consumed?
Olive oil and vinegar salad dressing
Once absorbed into the enterocyte, monoglycerides and fatty acids re-form triglycerides, which are then packaged into a lipoprotein called__________ for absorption into the lymphatic structure
Complete proteins of high biologic value are found in whole grains, dried beans and peas, and nuts.
The primary function of dietary protein is to supply the necessary amino acids to build and repair body tissue
Protein provides a main source of body heat and muscle energy
The average American diet contains a relatively small amount of protein
Because they are smaller, infants and young children need less protein per unit of body weight than do adults
Healthy adults are in a state of nitrogen balance
Positive nitrogen balance exists during periods of rapid growth (e.g., in infancy and adolescence).
When negative nitrogen balance exists, an individual is less able to resist infection.
Egg protein has a higher biologic value than meat protein
Nine of the 20 amino acids are indispensable, meaning that
the body cannot make them and must obtain them from the diet
A complete protein food of high biologic value contains
all nine of the indispensable amino acids in correct proportion to meet human requirements
A state of negative nitrogen balance may occur during periods of
injury or surgery
whats the role of thyroxin in matabolism
regulates the metabolic rate of the body
what are the functions of enzymes
Enzymes act as catalyst
Carotene is preformed vitamin A found in animal food sources
Exposure to sunlight produces vitamin D from a cholesterol precursor in the skin
Extra vitamin C is stored in the liver to meet tissue infection demands
Good sources of vitamin K are found in green, leafy vegetables such as kale and spinach
Vitamin A is fat soluble and formed from carotene in plant foods or consumed as the fully formed vitamin in animal foods. Which of the following supplies the greatest amount of this vitamin?
Beef Liver
If you wanted to increase the vitamin C content of your diet, which of the following foods would you choose in larger amounts?
Green peppers, strawberries, and oranges
A large portion of our vitamin K for metabolic needs is produced by intestinal bacteria
The formation of prothrombin for normal blood clotting purposes is a primary function of which fat-soluble vitamin?
Vitamin K
Potassium is the major electrolyte controlling the water outside cells.
Iodine is associated with iron functions in the body and is called the "iron twin."
Which of the following minerals is a trace mineral?
Which mineral has the following functions: blood clotting, muscle and nerve action, and bone and teeth formation?
Potassium is a major mineral
fresh fruits and vegetables, meats, and whole grains
food sources of potassium
what are food sources of iron?
liver, meats, egg yolk, whole grains, enriched bread and cereal, dark green veggies, legumes, and nuts