series of reactions that lead to the oxidative breakdown of glucose into two pyruvate molecules, the production of ATP, and the reduction of NAD+ and NADH.
step 1: glucose turns into glucose 6 phosphate when
step 2: glucose 6 phosphate turns into fructose 6 phosphate
step 3: fructose 6 phosphate turns to fructose 1,6 diphosphate when ATP->ADP.
step 4: fructose 1,6 diphosphate forms glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (PGAL) in equilibrium with dihydroxyacetone phosphate
dihydroxyacetone phosphate is isomerized into PGAL so that it can be used in subsequent reactions. Thus, 2 molecules of PGAL are formed per molecule of glucose and all subsequent steps occur twice for each glucose molecule.
step 5: the two in equilibrium turn to 1,3 diphosphoglycerate when NAD+->NADH
step 6: 1,3 diphosphoglycerate turns to 3-phosphoglycerate when ADP->ATP
step 7: 3 phosphoglycerate turns to 2 phosphoglycerate
step 8: 2-phosphoglycerate turns to phosphoenolpyruvate
step 9: phosphoenolpyruvate turns to pyruvate when ADP->ATP
steps 5-9 occur twice per molecule of glucose