Ch 18 (Blood)

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Terms in this set (...)

3 Functions of Blood
1) Transport gases, nutrients, waste, hormones
2) regulation of body temp, pH
3) protection against blood less/infection
What are the components of blood? (3)
-CT
-Matrix
-Cells
What is the component of blood, matrix?
-ground substance +fibers
-plasma--> serum (clotting)
-fibers
What are the formed cellular elements in blood? (3)
1) Erhtrocytes (RBC)
2) Leuokcytes (WBC)
3) Thrombocytes, aka Platelets (Cell fragments)
Characteristics of blood (6)
-sticky
-scarlet to dark red
-ph 7.4
-38 deg C
-8% of body weight
5-6 L for males, 4-5 L for female
Hematocrit
-% of blood volume that is RBCs
males: 47+-5%
females: 42+-5%
average body temp
37 deg C
Albumin functions
-protein in blood plasma
1) play important roles in osmotic pressure in blood, important solutes
2) solubilizes lipid solubles
Blood Plasma is ___% water
90%
Blood Plasma proteins
-produced in liver
-60% albumin
-36% globulins
-4% fibrinogen
Globulins
-protein in blood plasma
-antibodies
Fibrinogen
-inactive version of fibrins (important in clotting)
What are the only complete cells in blood?
WBCS
What formed element has no nuclei/organelles?
RBCS
Erthrocytes
-RBCS
*contribute to blood viscosity
-can change shape, often biconcave (large SA)
-contains hemoglobin, ATP (anaerobic)
*no organelles
*filled with hemoglobin for gas transport
-no mitochondira--> must do glycolysis
-some ribosomes to make Hb
What does hemoglobin do?
-holds on to and transports gases, -binds to O2 temporarily--> unloads to tissues
-iron atom can bind to O2

-has 4 globin chains, makes hemoglobin
How is hemoglobin affected when O2 loading in the lungs?
oxyhemoglobin--> ruby red

-hemoglobin is saturated
How is hemoglobin affected when O2 unloading in tissues?
deoxyhemoglobin--> dark red
How is hemoglobin affected when CO2 loading in the tissues?
carbamingemoglobin
How is hemoglobin affected when CO loading from fumes/smoke?
Carboxyhemoglobin--> blocks O2 from binding
Hematopoiesis
-blood cell formation
-development of hemocytoblasts
Hemocytoblasts
-stem cells of blood cells
-gives rise to all formed elements in blood (WBC, RBC, platelets)
Embryonic Hematopoeisis
-liver, yolk sac, thymus, lymph nodes, RB marrow
Adult Hematopoeisis
-Red marrow (skull, ribs, femur, long bones, etc)
Erythropoiesis
red blood cell production
-can be triggered by hormone stimulation (Eryhtropoitin)
Regulation of Erythropoiesis (inc/dec of RBC)
-decrease in RBC--> tissue hypoxia
-increase in RBC--> increased blood viscocity
Balance between RBC production/destruction depends on (2)
1) hormonal controls
2) supply of iron/amino acids/B vitamins
Erythropoietin (EPO)
-helps w/ hormonal control of erythropoiesis
-released by kidneys in response to hypoxia (exercise, high altitude, loss of RBC)
-speeds up RBC formation in red marrow
life span of Erthrocyte
100-120 days
-RBC break down, Hemoglobin released, Macropages engulf dying RBCS
-Hb broken down to amino acids, Fe, non Fe Heme
Anemia
-blood has abnormally low O2 carrying capacity
-fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath
Causes of Anemia (6)
1) Hemorrhagic Anema (loss of blood)
2) Hemolytic anemia (RBC rupture early)
3) Aplastic Anemia (autoimmune, RBM)
4) Pernicious Anemia (B12 deficiency)
5) Thalassemias (mutation)
6) Sickle Cell Anemia (mutation in Hb gene)
Polycthemia
-excess of RBCs that increase blood viscocity/clotting

-results from overproduction of bone marrow, blood doping, or high altitude
Leukocytes
-WBC
-protect against invading microorganisms and clear body of dead cells
-granulocytes and agranulocytes
Granulocytes
-Leukocytes
-neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
-phagocytic, cytoplasmic granules
Agranulocytes
-lymphocytes and monocytes
-no cytoplasmic granules
Neutrophils
-granulocyte
-most numerous WBC
-"first on site"
-phagocytic
-produce lysozymes and defensins to breakdown/destroy bacteria
Eosinohils
-Granulocyte
-bilobed nuclei
-block function of basophils
-increased with allergic reactions
*attracts to sight of inflammation/allergic reaction
-breaks down histamine--> reduce inflammation
-produce protease, break down proteins
-produces toxins to kill parasites
Basophils
-Granulocyte
-rare
*produces histamine (helps with inflammation) and heparin (prevents blood clotting too fast)
Lymphocyte
-agranulocyte
-from Red Marrow, increases in lymphatic tissues
-mostly in lymp tissue (not blood)
help with immunity (B and T Cells)
-B Cells: antibodies
-T Cells: destruction
Monocyte
-agranylocyte
-targets leukocyte
-leaves circulation, enters tissue, change to macrophages
--phagocytose viruses/bacteria--> present to lymphocytes---> immune response
Leukopoiesis
-production of WBCs
-stimulated by bone marrow/mature WBCs
Leukopenia
-low WBC count, drug induced
Leukocytosis
-increased WBC count
-response to infection
Leukemias
-cancerous
-creates nonfunction WBCs in bloodstream
What do platelets do?
-form a temporary platelet plug, seals breaks in blood vessels
-myosin/actin contracts to minimize wound size
Hemostasis
-stopping of bleeding
How it happens:
1) Vascular Spasm
2) Platelet plug formation
3) Blood Clotting
Buffy Coat=
WBC+Platelets

-Monocytes (dense, at bottom)
-Granulocytes (Top, less dense)
Platelet Plug Formation
1)Platelet Adhesion (binds to collagen @ wound)
2) Platelets activated (release coagulation factor)
3) Platelets change shape--> plug over wound
3 Phases of Coagulation
1) Prothrombin activator is formed
2) Prothrombin converted to thrombin
3) Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin
Anticoagulants and 3 kinds
-inactivate coagulation factors

1) Antithrombin (in plasma)
2) Herpain (from basophils, stimatulate antithrombin)
3) Prostacyclin (endothelial cells, stops release of clotting from platelets)
Fibrinolysis
-removal of clot
-plasminogen converted to plasmin, plasmin digests fibrin
Thrombus
-blood clot
Thrombosis
-clot that develops in unbroken blood vessel
-can block circulation
Embolus
-thrombus that breaks off and floats in blood stream

-pulmonary embolus: can block arteries of lung, no gas exchange
-Cerebral Emboli: block of blood supply to brain--> stroke
What is used to classify blood types?
presence/absence of A, B glycoproteins

types: ABO
-Type A: A antigens on RBC, anti B
-Type O: no A or B antigens
Rh Blood Groups
- are positive/negative
-indicated presence of Rheus sfactor
Increased neutrophils means:
increased Basophil/Eosinopil means:
bacterial infection

allergic reaction