-sticky -scarlet to dark red -ph 7.4 -38 deg C -8% of body weight 5-6 L for males, 4-5 L for female
-% of blood volume that is RBCs males: 47+-5% females: 42+-5%
average body temp
37 deg C
-protein in blood plasma 1) play important roles in osmotic pressure in blood, important solutes 2) solubilizes lipid solubles
Blood Plasma is ___% water
Blood Plasma proteins
-produced in liver -60% albumin -36% globulins -4% fibrinogen
-protein in blood plasma -antibodies
-inactive version of fibrins (important in clotting)
What are the only complete cells in blood?
What formed element has no nuclei/organelles?
-RBCS *contribute to blood viscosity -can change shape, often biconcave (large SA) -contains hemoglobin, ATP (anaerobic) *no organelles *filled with hemoglobin for gas transport -no mitochondira--> must do glycolysis -some ribosomes to make Hb
What does hemoglobin do?
-holds on to and transports gases, -binds to O2 temporarily--> unloads to tissues -iron atom can bind to O2
-has 4 globin chains, makes hemoglobin
How is hemoglobin affected when O2 loading in the lungs?
oxyhemoglobin--> ruby red
-hemoglobin is saturated
How is hemoglobin affected when O2 unloading in tissues?
deoxyhemoglobin--> dark red
How is hemoglobin affected when CO2 loading in the tissues?
How is hemoglobin affected when CO loading from fumes/smoke?
Carboxyhemoglobin--> blocks O2 from binding
-blood cell formation -development of hemocytoblasts
-stem cells of blood cells -gives rise to all formed elements in blood (WBC, RBC, platelets)
-liver, yolk sac, thymus, lymph nodes, RB marrow
-Red marrow (skull, ribs, femur, long bones, etc)
red blood cell production -can be triggered by hormone stimulation (Eryhtropoitin)
Regulation of Erythropoiesis (inc/dec of RBC)
-decrease in RBC--> tissue hypoxia -increase in RBC--> increased blood viscocity
Balance between RBC production/destruction depends on (2)
1) hormonal controls 2) supply of iron/amino acids/B vitamins
-helps w/ hormonal control of erythropoiesis -released by kidneys in response to hypoxia (exercise, high altitude, loss of RBC) -speeds up RBC formation in red marrow
life span of Erthrocyte
100-120 days -RBC break down, Hemoglobin released, Macropages engulf dying RBCS -Hb broken down to amino acids, Fe, non Fe Heme
-blood has abnormally low O2 carrying capacity -fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath
-lymphocytes and monocytes -no cytoplasmic granules
-granulocyte -most numerous WBC -"first on site" -phagocytic -produce lysozymes and defensins to breakdown/destroy bacteria
-Granulocyte -bilobed nuclei -block function of basophils -increased with allergic reactions *attracts to sight of inflammation/allergic reaction -breaks down histamine--> reduce inflammation -produce protease, break down proteins -produces toxins to kill parasites
-Granulocyte -rare *produces histamine (helps with inflammation) and heparin (prevents blood clotting too fast)
-agranulocyte -from Red Marrow, increases in lymphatic tissues -mostly in lymp tissue (not blood) help with immunity (B and T Cells) -B Cells: antibodies -T Cells: destruction
-agranylocyte -targets leukocyte -leaves circulation, enters tissue, change to macrophages --phagocytose viruses/bacteria--> present to lymphocytes---> immune response
-production of WBCs -stimulated by bone marrow/mature WBCs
-low WBC count, drug induced
-increased WBC count -response to infection
-cancerous -creates nonfunction WBCs in bloodstream
What do platelets do?
-form a temporary platelet plug, seals breaks in blood vessels -myosin/actin contracts to minimize wound size
-stopping of bleeding How it happens: 1) Vascular Spasm 2) Platelet plug formation 3) Blood Clotting
-Monocytes (dense, at bottom) -Granulocytes (Top, less dense)
Platelet Plug Formation
1)Platelet Adhesion (binds to collagen @ wound) 2) Platelets activated (release coagulation factor) 3) Platelets change shape--> plug over wound
3 Phases of Coagulation
1) Prothrombin activator is formed 2) Prothrombin converted to thrombin 3) Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin
Anticoagulants and 3 kinds
-inactivate coagulation factors
1) Antithrombin (in plasma) 2) Herpain (from basophils, stimatulate antithrombin) 3) Prostacyclin (endothelial cells, stops release of clotting from platelets)
-removal of clot -plasminogen converted to plasmin, plasmin digests fibrin
-clot that develops in unbroken blood vessel -can block circulation
-thrombus that breaks off and floats in blood stream
-pulmonary embolus: can block arteries of lung, no gas exchange -Cerebral Emboli: block of blood supply to brain--> stroke
What is used to classify blood types?
presence/absence of A, B glycoproteins
types: ABO -Type A: A antigens on RBC, anti B -Type O: no A or B antigens
Rh Blood Groups
- are positive/negative -indicated presence of Rheus sfactor