quiz 3

1. Which of the following concepts refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?
a. Socialization
b. Internalization
c. Naturalism
d. Behaviorism
2. Which theory developed by the psychologist John B Watson claims that most human behavior is not instinctive, but learned within a social environment?
a. Behaviorism
b. Biological psychology
c. Evolutionary psychology
d. Naturalism
3. Based on both the Harlows' research with rhesus monkeys, and the case of Anna the isolated child, one might reasonably conclude that

a. Social isolation that is harmful to monkeys presents no danger to human children
b. Both monkeys and humans "bounce back" from long-term isolation
c. Even days of social isolation is deadly to both monkeys and humans
d. Long-term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans
4. Human beings' basic drives, or needs, are reflected in Freud's concept of:
a. Superego
b. Ego
c. Id
d. Generalized other
5. In Freud's model of personality, which element of the personality represents a person's efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives and the demands of society?
a. Id
b. Ego
c. Superego
d. Generalized other
6. Jean Piaget's focus was on:
a. How children develop their motor skills
b. How children respond to stimulation
c. The role of heredity in shaping human behavior
d. Cognition, which means how people think and understand
7. According to Piaget, in what stage of human development do individuals experience the world only through sensory contact?
a. Sensorimotor stage
b. Preoperational stage
c. Concrete operational stage
d. Formal operational stage
8. Jean Piaget called the level of development at which individuals first use language and other cultural symbols which of the following stages?
a. Sensorimotor stage
b. Preoperational stage
c. Concrete operational stage
d. Formal operational stage
9. The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg's research was:
a. Cognitive development
b. The importance of gender in socialization
c. Moral reasoning
d. All of the above are correct
10. Carol Gilligan extended Lawrence Kohlberg's research, showing that:
a. Girls and boys typically use different standards in assessing situations as right and wrong
b. Younger girls are more interested in right and wrong than older girls are
c. Younger boys are more interested in right and wrong than older boys are
d. The ability to assess situations as right and wrong typically develops only as young people enter the teenage years.
11. George Herbert Mead considered the self to be:
a. The part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
b. The presence of culture within the individual
c. Basic drives that are self-centered
d. Present in infants at the time of their birth
12. By "taking the role of the other," Mead had in mind
a. Imagining a situation in terms of past experience
b. Recognizing that people have different views of most situations
c. Imagining a situation from another person's point of view
d. Trading self-centeredness for a focus on helping other people
13. When Charles Horton Cooley used the term "looking-glass self," he was referring to the fact that
a. People are self-absorbed
b. People see themselves as they think others see them
c. People see things only from their own point of view
d. Our actions are a reflection of our cultural values
14. According to George Herbert Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these important people as:
a. Role models
b. Looking-glass models
c. Significant others
d. The generalized other
15. Critics Erikson's theory of personality development point out that
a. Not everyone confronts life stages in the exact order given by Erikson
b. Failing to meet the challenge of one stage of development may not mean failing at later challenges
c. This development process may unfold differently in various times and in various places
d. All of the above are correct
16. The special contribution of schooling to the socialization process includes:
a. Exposing the child to people whose backgrounds differ from their own
b. Receiving love from caring adults
c. Teaching children to be highly flexible and to express their individuality
d. Helping children break free of gender roles
17. Ageism refers to:
a. The rising share of elderly people in the U.S. society who are poor
b. Prejudice and discrimination against the elderly
c. The fact that young people know little of the experience of growing old
d. All of the above are correct
18. People who grew up during World War II would correctly be considered as:
a. A subculture
b. A social group
c. A counterculture
d. A cohort
19. Which of the following concepts refers to efforts to radically change someone's personality through careful control of the environment?
a. Anticipatory socialization
b. Resocialization
c. Therapy group
d. Taking the role of the other
20. According to Erikson, there are how many stages of development?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8