A meeting of European leaders to set rules for the division of Africa among the major European powers. Did not invite or consider native Africans.
Spheres of Influence
Areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China).
U.S. declaration that Europe should not interfere with Latin America. The Roosevelt Corollary says the U.S. can interfere in Latin America.
Began over sugar plantations in Cuba. This war led to increasing U.S. imperial control over many islands.
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
White Man's Burden
The idea that is the duty of the Europeans and their descendants to bring civilization to the native inhabitants of the earth.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, or economically.
Application of "survival of the fittest" to human societies. This theory suggests that the "white" nations were better adapted and therefore science dictates that white should rule over other races. Invented by Herbert Spencer.
Congo Reform Association
Group began by E.D. Morel that fought against Leopold II's exploitation of the Congo. Ultimately succeeded through the efforts of John & Alice Harris.
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Rebellion against British East Indian Company rule in India. Began with Hindu and Muslim soldiers and spread. Resulted in Queen Victoria taking control of India herself.
Ship canal designed to improve trade between Europe and Asia. It opened to shipping in 1869. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
Indian National Congress
Created to allow more Indian participation in the government of India. Eventually reorganized by Gandhi to work towards independence.
War between China and Japan. Began over control of the Korean Peninsula. Ended with a Japanese victory. Resulted in a series of unequal treaties between Japan and China.