fat-soluble: Vit A,D,E,K; water-soluble: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, Vit B6, pantothenic acid, folate, biotin, Vit B12 (B Vitamins), Vit C High intakes of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of cancer, especially lung, oral, esophageal, stomach, and colon cancers.62 Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of vitamin C, as well as carotenoids and other phytochemicals that may have antioxidant activity in the body. Antioxidants protect DNA from free-radical damage, preventing potentially cancer-causing mutations from occurring. Although research is ongoing, results of scientific studies generally have not shown that taking dietary supplements containing antioxidants reduces the risk of cancer.66,67 Some medical experts are concerned that taking antioxidant supplements may increase the risk of lung and prostate cancers, especially among smokers and men with family histories of prostate cancer; Avoiding exposure to tobacco smoke;
Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight;
Adopting a physically active lifestyle; and
Eating a healthy diet that limits intake of red and processed meats and emphasizes plant foods, including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
Adult Upper Limit (UL) =3000 µg/day
Nausea and vomiting, headaches, bone pain and fractures, hair loss, liver damage, interference with vitamin K absorption; Excessive consumption of vitamin A can damage the liver, because the organ is the main site for vitamin A storage. Toxicity signs and symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, hair loss, bone pain, and bone fractures.
Preformed: liver, milk, fortified cereals
Provitamin: yellow- orange and dark green fruits and vegetables; Animal foods such as liver, butter, fish, fish oils, and eggs are good sources of preformed vitamin A, including retinyl esters. Vitamin A-fortified milk, yogurt, margarine, and cereals are important sources of the nutrient for Americans. Carrots, spinach and other leafy greens, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, broccoli, mangoes, and cantaloupe are rich sources of beta-carotene, a carotenoid that the body can convert to vitamin A. (retinol in the body)
Vegetable oils and products made from these oils, certain fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, fortified cereals; sunflower seeds, almonds, and plant oils, especially sunflower, safflower, canola, and olive oils. Products made from vitamin E-rich plant oils, such as margarine and salad dressings, also supply the micronutrient. Other important dietary sources of the vitamin include fish, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and certain vegetables Animal foods, fortified cereals, fortified soy milk; Only bacteria, fungi (for example, mushrooms and molds), and algae can synthesize vitamin B-12; people rely almost entirely on animal foods to supply the vitamin naturally. Major sources of vitamin B-12 in the typical American diet are meat, milk and milk products, poultry, fish, shellfish, and eggs. Although liver is not a popular food, it is one of the richest sources of vitamin B-12 because the vitamin is stored in the liver. Absorbing the vitamin B-12 that is naturally in food requires a complex series of steps (Fig. 10.12). Natural vitamin B-12 is bound to animal protein that prevents its absorption. When the food enters the stomach, the vitamin is released from the protein, primarily by the actions of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in gastric juice. Synthetic vitamin B-12 in dietary supplements or fortified foods is not bound to food protein, so it does not need stomach acid to release the protein. Thus, synthetic vitamin B-12 is more readily absorbed than the natural form of the micronutrient; In the small intestine, vitamin B-12 binds to intrinsic factor (IF), a compound that is produced by parietal cells of the stomach. Eventually, the vitamin B-12/intrinsic factor complex reaches the ileum of the small intestine, where the vitamin complex is absorbed. Within the absorptive cells, vitamin B-12 is separated from intrinsic factor and attached to transport molecules. The transport molecules enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. The liver removes vitamin B-12 from many of the carrier molecules and stores about 50% of the vitamin. A healthy liver has enough vitamin B-12 reserves to last 5 to 10 years.35 Therefore, a healthy person who decides to follow a diet that completely lacks vitamin B-12 is not likely to experience signs and symptoms of the vitamin's deficiency disorder for as long as 10 years. Even though vitamin B-12 is stored in the liver, no UL has been established for the micronutrient, because no adverse effects have been observed with excess intakes; 1. HCL separates B12 from animal protein 2. stomach secretes intrinsic factor 3. B12 binds to IF 4. The IF/B12 complex enters the cells and the complex breaks apart 5. B12 binds to carrier molecule for transport in the blood The simplest way to determine if an individual is consuming enough water is to observe the volume of his or her urine. When fluid intake is adequate, the kidneys produce enough urine to maintain fluid balance. If fluid consumption is more than needed, the kidneys eliminate the excess, and the body produces plenty of urine. If fluid intake is limited or the body loses high amounts of fluid, such as through heavy perspiration, the kidneys produce only small amounts of urine.
In addition to urine volume, the color of urine may be a useful indicator of hydration status. Straw-colored (light yellow) urine can indicate adequate hydration, whereas dark-colored urine may be a sign of dehydration. However, the color of urine is not always a reliable guide for judging a person's hydration status.8 It is important to recognize that having a urinary tract infection or ingesting certain medications, foods, and dietary supplements, especially those containing the B vitamin riboflavin, can alter urine's color.
There is no Upper Limit (UL) for water.4 Water intoxication, however, can occur when an excessive amount of water is consumed in a short time period or the kidneys have difficulty filtering water from blood. The excess water dilutes the sodium concentration of blood, disrupting water balance and resulting in hyponatremia (low blood sodium). As a result of the imbalance, too much water moves into cells, including brain cells. Signs and symptoms of water intoxication may include dizziness, headache, confusion, inability to coordinate muscular movements, bizarre behavior, and seizures.15 If the condition is not detected early and treated effectively, coma and death can result.
Healthy people rarely drink enough water to become intoxicated. However, water intoxication can develop in people with disorders that interfere with the kidney's ability to excrete water normally. Marathon runners who consume large amounts of plain water in an effort to keep hydrated during competition may be at risk of water intoxication
Milk and milk products, canned fish, tofu made with calcium sulfate, leafy vegetables, calcium-fortified foods such as orange juice; broccoli and leafy greens, especially kale, collard, turnip, bok choy, and mustard greens. Nevertheless, the calcium in plant foods is generally not as bioavailable as the calcium in milk and milk products Strengthens bone
Cofactor for certain enzymes
Heart and nerve functioning; Magnesium plays an essential role in many important metabolic and physiological activities, including contraction and relaxation of muscles, enzyme function, energy production, and DNA and protein synthesis.42 Magnesium participates in more than 300 chemical reactions in the body.42 This essential mineral also helps regulate normal muscle and nerve function, as well as blood pressure and blood glucose levels. Additionally, the body needs magnesium to maintain strong bones and a healthy immune system.
Magnesium may help prevent and treat diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, CVD, and asthma.43-45 In addition, magnesium may be useful in the treatment and management of migraine headaches and reduce risk of death from CVD
Wheat bran, green vegetables, nuts, chocolate, legumes; Magnesium is a critical component in chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants. Therefore, plant foods such as spinach, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts, seeds, and chocolate are the richest sources of magnesium. Animal products such as milk and meats also supply some magnesium The intestinal tract absorbs the ferrous (Fe2+) form of iron more efficiently than the ferric (Fe3+) form (Fig. 12.3). Under acidic conditions, ferric iron can be converted to ferrous iron. Thus, medications that decrease stomach acidity, such as antacids, may reduce iron absorption.1 Calcium and iron compete for absorption in the small intestine, so a meal with high calcium content can inhibit iron absorption. Therefore, people should consume a variety of food sources of iron throughout the day.
Some plant foods, such as spinach, contain nonheme iron, but oxalic acid in spinach binds to the mineral, reducing its absorption. Other naturally occurring compounds that reduce iron absorption include polyphenols, phytic acid (or phytates), and soy protein. Polyphenols are present in tea, coffee, wine, and some fruits and vegetables. Phytates are in several foods, including whole grains, rice, and legumes. Absorption of iron from phytate-containing legumes, such as soybeans, black beans, lentils, and split peas, may be as little as 2%.1 Soy protein, including the kind used to make tofu, also reduces iron absorption.
Certain dietary factors can enhance iron absorption, especially of nonheme iron. Foods that are high in vitamin C increase intestinal absorption of the trace mineral. Adding a source of vitamin C to meals can increase the absorption of nonheme iron by 20%.5 People can also increase their absorption of nonheme iron by combining a small amount of heme iron (from meat) with foods that contain nonheme iron. In addition to heme iron, meat, fish, and poultry contain a factor (sometimes called "MFP factor") that enhances the intestinal tract's ability to absorb nonheme iron. Enhance: Vit C, Heme Iron, Leavening of bread, fermentation, soaking beans or grains; Inhibit: High intake of calcium with iron-containing food, medications that reduce stomach acidity, oxalic acid from foods such as spinach, phytic acid from foods such as whole grains, soy protein such as tofu, polyphenols from foods and beverages, such as tea
In parts of China where the soil lacks selenium and the population consumes only locally produced foods, diets are typically inadequate in selenium. Keshan disease, a cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle), was common in selenium-deficient regions of China before food in the area was fortified with selenium. In areas of China, Tibet, Siberia, and North Korea, a form of osteoarthritis called Kashin-Beck disease develops as a result of selenium deficiency.23 Kashin-Beck disease is a degeneration of the cartilage between joints, which leads to deformity and dwarfism.
The UL for selenium is 400 μg/day. In the United States, selenium toxicity (selenosis) (sell'-in-o-sis) is rare.22 Chronic selenosis, however, can occur from drinking well water that contains naturally high levels of selenium. Selenium toxicity can develop by taking megadoses of dietary supplements. In humans, signs and symptoms of chronic selenosis include brittle fingernails, loss of hair and nails, garlicky body odor, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue.
transferring of pathogens from a contaminated food or surface to an uncontaminated food or surface
Ex. Using the same cutting board to cut raw meat and raw fruits and vegetables
Transporting cooked meat on the same plate used to transport raw meat.
Using the same utensils to handle raw meat and raw produce.
*To prevent cross contamination be sure to wash:
Hands (20 seconds)
FDA recommends using nonporous material such as plastic, marble, or glass.
Wooden cutting boards should be nonabsorbent with no cracks or seams.
Utensils and other equipment*
Wash hands thoroughly with very warm, soapy water for at least 20 seconds before and after touching food. If clean water for hand washing is not available, use sanitizing hand wipes.
If you are preparing more than one type of food, such as cutting up chicken and dicing carrots, wash hands in between.
Use a fresh paper towel or clean hand towel to dry hands. Reserve dish towels for drying pots, pans, and cooking utensils that are not washed and dried in a dishwasher.
Before preparing food, clean food preparation surfaces, including kitchen counters, cutting boards, dishes, knives, and other food preparation equipment, with hot, soapy water.
Sanitize food preparation surfaces and equipment that have come in contact with raw meat, fish, poultry, and eggs as soon as possible. Sanitizing is a process that uses heat or chemicals to destroy pathogens. Most pathogens on surfaces can be killed by using a sanitizing solution made by adding a tablespoon of bleach to 1 gallon of cool water.17 However, avoid getting bleach solution on colored fabrics or surfaces that can be damaged by bleach (granite, for example).
The FDA recommends using cutting boards with unmarred surfaces made of easy-to-clean, nonporous materials, such as plastic, marble, or glass. If you prefer to use wooden cutting boards, make sure they are made of a nonabsorbent hardwood, such as oak or maple, and have no obvious seams or cracks.
Replace cutting boards when they become streaked with cuts, because these grooves can be difficult to clean thoroughly and may harbor bacteria.
If possible, have a cutting board reserved for meats, fish, and poultry; another cutting board for fruits and vegetables; and a third board for breads.
Utensils and other equipment
Do not reuse cooking utensils such as tongs, knives, or spoons that have previously touched raw meat, fish, poultry, or eggs unless they have been sanitized first.
Sanitize kitchen sponges and wash kitchen towels frequently.
Food selection guidelines emphasize selecting unexpired foods, purchasing fresh produce, and keeping cold or frozen foods at the proper temperature during transport home. To reduce the risk of food-borne illness:
Packaged and fresh perishable foods
Check "best by" dates on packaged perishable foods. Choose meats and other animal products with the latest dates.
Do not buy food in damaged containers; for example, avoid cans that leak, bulge, or are severely dented, or jars that are cracked or have loose or bulging lids.
Dairy and eggs
Open egg cartons and examine eggs; do not buy cartons that have cracked eggs.
Purchase only pasteurized milk and cheese, as well as fruit and vegetable juices (check the label).
Store whole eggs in their cartons, even if the refrigerator has a place for storing eggs. Egg cartons are designed to keep eggs fresh longer than a refrigerator's egg compartment.
Meats, fish, and frozen foods
When shopping in a supermarket, select frozen and cold foods last, especially potentially hazardous foods such as meats, poultry, dairy, or fish.
Pack meat, fish, and poultry in separate plastic bags, so their drippings do not contaminate each other and other groceries.
After shopping for food, take groceries home immediately. Refrigerate or freeze meat, fish, egg, and dairy products promptly.
*selecting unexpired foods
purchasing fresh produce
keeping cold or frozen foods at the proper temperature during transport home
do not use foods from containers that have damaged safety lids
do not taste or use food that spurts liquid or has a bad odor
carefully wash foods under running water
avoid eating moldy foods
when in doubt, throw the food away*
Pasteurization is a special heating process used by many commercial food producers to kill pathogens.
The nutrient composition of pasteurized foods may be slightly lower than that of unpasteurized foods, but the benefits of pasteurization far outweigh the loss of nutrients.
pasteurization process that kills the pathogens in foods and beverages as well as many microbes responsible for spoilage in diary products and juices, and the nutrient composition may be slightly lower but the benefit often outweighs the risk;
Kills or deactivates pathogens; destroys enzymes that result in food spoilage; Aseptic processing involves sterilizing a food and its package separately, before the food enters the package. The sterilization process destroys all microorganisms and viruses, as compared to pasteurization, which is a less extensive heating process that kills most pathogens. This process makes products such as milk and juice shelf stable until the package is open.
After undergoing aseptic packaging, boxes of sterile foods and beverages, such as milk or juices (Fig. 19.9), can remain free of microbial growth for several years while sitting on supermarket or pantry shelves. However, once the containers of these products are opened, the foods or beverages have the same shelf life as their counterparts that have not undergone aseptic processing