APWH 33: The Great War

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self-determinism
The idea that each ethnicity or nationality should be allowed to decide their own fate. Favors large and powerful nationalities over smaller ones (e.g. Serbs over Croatians).
arms race
When two nations attempt to intimidate each other by the rapid acquisition of weapons.
Twenty-One Demands
An ultimatum presented by Japan to China primarily requiring China to cease its leasing of territory to other foreign powers and to allow Japan to control Manchuria and Shandong. Accepted by China but blocked by Britain.
Armenian genocide
When the government of the Ottoman Empire killed 1 million people in suspicion that they were working for Russia during WWI.
trench warfare
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield. Virtually no progress is made on the front while soldiers deal with issues of sanitation and the stresses of war.
total war
The channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort. Involves the civilians of a nation in the war effort, which often leads to military targeting of civilians.
propaganda
Information of a biased or misleading nature that is used to promote a cause or point of view.
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the Bolsheviks. Took control of Russia in the October Revolution, establishing himself as the first leader of the USSR.
Leninism
A kind of communism that believes that the workers will never revolt on their own - they need a political party to guide them. More nationalistic than Marxism.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
The official name for Russia under communist control. From 1917 to 1991.
war weariness
After the initial nationalism wanes, people of warring nations often begin to question the wisdom of warfare.
conscription
Also known as a draft. When soldiers are recruited involuntarily.
Fourteen Points
U.S. President Wilson's ideas for preventing another major war after WWI. Ran into opposition from other major Allied powers who desired land, money, and revenge.
1918 Influenza
Pandemic that spread throughout the world at the end of WWI. Killed the young and healthy, often very quickly. Also known as the Spanish flu.
Ataturk
Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey. Pushed secularism and modern industrialization.
War Guilt Clause
Part of the Treaty of Versailles that lays blame for WWI on Germany and orders the payment of reparations.
Mandate System
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision. The European powers did not believe Africans or Arabs could govern themselves.
League of Nations
International body created at the end of WWI to prevent future wars. Never had the power necessary to enforce its rulings.