Peds C 37-38

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What do you assess prior to Digoxin?
-Apical pulse for 1 minute
-Hold if lower than established norm
-Infant 90-110
-Child 70-85
When does a child's heart function like an adults?
At 5 years old
The heart is smaller but functions the same, has matured and developed just as an adults.
What does lasix do for a child with CHF?
Removes excess fluid
What are the assessment findings of an infant with CHF?
-Easily fatigable
-They have problems feeding
What is the activity recommended for a kid with rheumatic fever?
Promote rest-Providing diversional activities and promote energy conservation
How does a child get rheumatic fever?
Autoimmune typically after strep
What are the lab findings for rheumatic fever?
Will have an elevated ESR
How do you stop taking corticosteroids?
Tapered dosing
What are the symptoms of Kawasaki disease?
Strawberry-colored tongue
What does kawasaki affect?
Affects the heart and can cause aneurysms
What is hemophilia?
Hereditary disease that causes a lack of a coagulation factor.
-Prolonged bleeding with frequent hemorrhages into the skin, joint spaces
What factor does hemophilia affect?
Factor VIII deficiency (Most common)
What is hemarthrosis?
Bleeding into joints
What is sickle cell?
Abnormal hemoglobin production (Most common in African Americans) Results in RBCs assuming sickle shape when inherited from both parents.
How do kids get sickle cell?
Inherited from both parents
What is the tx of sickle cell?
-Prevention of crisis
-1,500-2,000 mL fluid increase
-3,000 mL fluid increase during crisis
-Supportive for symptoms
(O2, bed rest, analgesics)
What activity should a child be on with sickle cell?
Energy conservation
Where are blood cells formed?
Bone marrow
How should you take iron at home?
Brush teeth to protect teeth from staining
How should injected iron be given?
Z-track method
How is leukemia diagnosed?
CBC
Bone marrow aspiration
What does the treatment of leukemia do to a child?
Chemotherapy causes immunosuppression
(Prevent infection, bleeding and injury)
What constitutes the GI system?
Mouth
Throat
Esophagus
Stomach
Intestines
Rectum
Anal canal
Accessory organs
Where does digestion begin?
Mouth
What is gastroenteritis?
Intestinal infection marked by diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting, and fever.
What are the symptoms of gastroenteritis?
Diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever
What is celiac disease?
Basic metabolic defect precipitated by gluten (wheat or rye) ingestion
What are the dietary considerations for celiac disease?
Treatment includes gluten-free, low-fat diet
What is steatorrhea?
Foul, bulky, greasy stools
What is GERD?
Lower esophageal sphincter relaxes, allowing gastric contents to regurgitate back into esophagus
What is pyloric stenosis?
Forceful projectile vomiting
What is colic?
Fairly common, recurrent paroxysmal bouts of abdominal pain
What is intussusception?
Telescoping of one portion of bowel into the distal portion
What is the cardinal symptom of intussusception?
Currant jelly stools
What is enterobiasis?
Pinworm infection
Perianal itching
What is giardiasis?
Diarrhea
Highly communicable
What is the risk for giardiasis?
Prevalent in day cares
What are the signs of a malnourished child?
Lack of concentration
What is kwashiorkor?
Severe protein deficiency with adequate caloric intake
What do kids with kwashiorkor need?
Protein
What is rickets?
Deficiency in vitamin D, Calcium, and phosphorus
What food can someone take for rickets?
Fortified cereal
What is beriberi?
Deficiency in thiamine
What are good sources of vitamin D?
Fortified cereals, cheese, fatty fish, orange juice
What increases absorption of vitamin D?
Vitamin C
What are good sources of vitamin C?
Fruits and veggies
What is the risk of hypocalcemia?
Mineral insufficencies
Causes neurological issues
What foods frequently cause allergy?
Strawberries, tree nuts, eggs, corn, soy
What are the signs of a food allergy?
Pruritus and urticaria
What are the steps when treating a poisoning? (KNOW)
1. Remove remnants of poison
2. Call 911
3. If the child is alert: call poison Help line (800)222-1222
4. Follow PHL instruction
5. Administer antidote
6. Administer general supportive, symptomatic care
What are the signs of Diabetes?
Polyuria-pee's a lot, polydipsia-drinks a lot, and polyphagia-eats a lot
What is the emergent treatment of hypoglycemia?
When in doubt tx glucose reactions or death will happen
What is the emergent treatment of hyperglycemia?
Insulin
What does the endocrine system do?
Secretes hormones