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78 terms

pearson ch 8-11

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exhibit a joint cavity
synovial joints
types are sutures and syndesmoses
fibrous joints
bones are connected by collagen fibers
FIBROUS JOINTS
types include synchrodoses and symphases
cartilagenous joints
all are diarthrotic
synovial joints
many are amphiarthrotic
cartilaginous joints
bones are connected by a disc of hyaline cartilage or fibrous cartilage
cartilaginous joints
nearly all are synarthrotic
fibrous joints
shoulder hip jaw and elbow joints
synovial joints
freely movable joints are
diarthroses
anatomical characteristics of a synovial joint include
all of these (articular cartilage, a joint cavity, and an articular capsule)
factors that influence the stability of a synovial joint include
all of these (shape of articular surfaces, presence of strong reinforcing ligaments, tone of surrounding muscles)
the description "articular surfaces deep and secure; capsule heavily reinforced by ligaments and muscle tendons; extremely stable joint" best describes
the hip joint
ankylosis means
immobility of a joint due to fusion of its articular surfaces
an autoimmune disorder in which joints are affected bilaterally and which involves pannus formation and gradual joint immobilization is
rheumatoid arthritis
the connective tissue covering that encloses the sarcolemma of an individual muscle fiber is called the
endomysium
a fasicle is a
bundle of muscle fibers enclosed by a connective tissue sheath
contains actin
thin myofilament
contains ATPases
thick myofilament
attaches to the Z disc
thin myofilament
contains myosin
thick myofilament
contains troponin
thin filament
does not lie in the I band
thick filament
the function of the T tubules in muscle contraction is to
transmit the action potential deep into the muscle cells
the sites where the motor nerve impulse is transmitted from the nerve endings to the skeletal muscle cell membranes are the
neuromuscular junctions
contraction elicited by a single brief stimulus is called
a twitch
a smooth, sustained contraction resulting from very rapid stimulation of the muscle, in which no evidence of relaxation is seen, is called
fused tetanus
characteristics of isometric contractions include all but
shortening
which provides ATP fastest?
a coupled reaction of creatine phosphate with ADP
which does (do) not require that oxygen be available?
A) a coupled reaction of creatine phosphate with ADP and C) anaerobic glycolysis
which provides the highest yield of ATP per glucose molecule
aerobic respiration of glucose
which results in the formation of lactic acid
anaerobic glycolysis
which has carbon dioxide and water products
aerobic respiration of glucose
which is most important in endurance sports
aerobic respiration of glucose
the neurotransmitter released by somatic motor neurons is
acetylcholine
the ions that enter the skeletal muscle cell during action potential generation are
sodium ions
myoglobin has a special function in muscle tissue. it
holds a reserve supply of oxygen in the muscle
aerobic exercise results in all of the following except
increased size and strength of exisiting muscle cells
the smooth muscle type found in the walls of digestive and urinary system organs and that exhibits gap junctions and pacemaker cells is
single-unit
a muscle that assists an agonist by causing a like movement or by stabilizing a joint over which an agonist acts is
a synergist
the arrangement of muscle fibers in which the fibers are arranged at an angle to a central longitudinal tendon is
pennate
squints the eyes
orbicularis oculi
raises the eyebrows
frontal belly of epicranius
smiling muscle
zygomaticus
puckers the lips
orbicularis oris
pulls the scalp posteriorly
occipital belly of epicranius
the prime mover of inspiration is the
diaphragm
the arm muscle that both flexes the elbow and supinates the forearm is the
biceps brachii
the chewing muscles that protrude the mandible and produce side-to-side grinding movements are the
pterygoids
muscles that depress hyoid bones and larynx include all but the
geniohyoid
intrinsic muscles of the back that promote extension of the spine (or head) include all but
scalene muscles
several muscles act to move and or stabilize the scapula. which of the following are small rectangular muscles that square the shoulders as they act together to retract the scapula?
rhomboids
the quadriceps include all but
biceps femoris
a prime mover of hip flexion is the
iliopsoas
the prime mover of hip extension against resistance is the
gluteus maximus
muscles that cause plantar flexion include all but the
tibialis anterior
in walkin which two lower limb muscles keep the forward swinging foot from dragging on the ground
gluteus medius and tibialis anterior
what criterion (criteria) are used in naming the gluteus medius
relative size and muscle location
which of the following is a large deep muscle that protracts the scapula during punching
serratus anterior
which of the following is not part of the central nervous system
a nerve
myelinates nerve fibers in the CNS
oligodendrocyte
lines brain cavities
ependymal cell
myelinates nerve fibers in the PNS
schwann cell
CNS phagocytes
microglia
helps regulate the ionic composition of CNS extracellular fluid
astrocyte
what type of current flows through the axolemma during steep phase of repolarization
chiefly a potassium current
assume that an EPSP is being generated on the dendritic membrane. which will occur
a single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of NA+ and K+
the velocity of nerve impulse conduction is greatest in
heavily myelinated large-diameter fibers
chemical synapses are characterized by all of the following except
ions flowing through protein channels from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic neuron
biogenic amine neurotransmitters include all but
acetylcholine
the neuropeptides that act as natural opiates are
enkephalins
inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by poisoning blocks neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction because
ACh is not degraded, hence prolonged depolarization is enforced on the postsynaptic cell
the anatomical region of a multipolar neuron that has the lowest threshold for generating an AP is the
axon hillock
an IPSP is inhibitory because
it hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic membrane
impulses continue around and around the circuit until one neuron stops firing
reverberating
one or a few inputs ultimately influence large numbers of neurons
diverging
many neurons influence a few neurons
converging
may be involved in exacting types of mental activity
parallel after-discharge