Upgrade to remove ads
CNT120_Chapter 1 Terms
Terms in this set (84)
An environment that is built into Windows Server 2016 that is used to develop and execute applications.
A central database of computers, users, shared printers, shared folders, other network resources, and resource groupings that is used to manage a network and enable users to quickly find a particular resource.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
A protocol in the TCP/IP suite that enables a sending station to determine the MAC or physical address of another station on a network.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
An organization that works to set standards for all types of products, including network equipment.
A packet that goes only to the closest interface and does not attempt to reach other interfaces with the same address.
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
Windows Server 2016 supports Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) to automatically configure the TCP/IP settings for a computer. The computer assigns itself an IP address in the range of 169.254.0.1-169.254.255.254, if a DHCP server is not available.
A message sent to all computers on a network (but usually blocked to other networks by a router).
A computer that accesses resources on another computer via a network or direct cable connection.
Linking two or more discrete computer systems so they appear to function as though they are one, thus increasing the ability to access server resources and provide fail-safe services.
A command-line tool available in Windows PowerShell. See Windows PowerShell.
Also called a connectionless service, a communication service that provides no checks (or minimal checks) to make sure that data accurately reaches the destination node.
Also called a connection-oriented service, this service provides several ways to ensure that data is successfully received at the destination, such as requiring an acknowledgement of receipt and using a checksum to make sure the packet or frame contents are accurate.
An operating environment that enables applications to run in an isolated fashion and provides the ability to execute multiple applications on one computer system.
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
A network symmetric-key encryption standard developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
The IP address of the router that has a connection to other networks. The default gateway address is used when the host computer you are trying to contact exists on another network.
Desired State Configuration
A feature of Windows Server 2016 that enables monitoring of specific server states and roles to ensure that desired server states are not inadvertently altered.
A grouping of resource objects—for example, servers, computers, and user accounts— to enable easier centralized management of these objects. On Windows Server 2016 networks, a domain is contained within Active Directory as a higher-level representation of how a business, school, or government agency is organized.
Domain Name System (DNS)
Also called Domain Name Service, a TCP/IP application protocol that enables a DNS server to resolve (translate) domain and computer names to IP addresses or IP addresses to domain and computer names.
dotted decimal notation
An addressing technique that uses four octets, such as 10000110.11 011110.01100101.00000101, converted to decimal (e.g., 188.8.131.52) to differentiate individual servers, workstations, and other network devices.
An IP address that is automatically assigned to a client from a general pool of available addresses and that might be assigned each time the client is started, or it might be assigned for a period of days, weeks, months, or longer.
Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS)
A form of DNS that enables client computers to update DNS registration information so that this does not have to be done manually. DDNS is often used with DHCP servers to automatically register IP addresses on a DNS server.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
A network protocol that provides a way for a server to automatically assign an IP address to a workstation on its network.
A unit of data that is transmitted on a network that contains control and address information, but not routing information.
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)
tunneling A protocol that encapsulates a packet payload for transport through a private tunnel over a network that goes from one point to another. One advantage of GRE tunneling is the ability to enable virtual private networks to use a private tunnel over an external network, such as through a wide area network.
Virtualization software developed by Microsoft that is included with Windows Server 2016 Standard and Datacenter Editions. See virtualization.
Internet Information Services (IIS)
A Microsoft Windows Server component that provides Internet, web, FTP, mail, and other services to make the server into a full-featured web server.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The Internet layer protocol responsible for addressing packets so that they are delivered on the local network or across routers to other networks or subnets.
Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)
The most commonly used version of IP, which has been in use for many years. IPv4 has a limitation in that it was not designed to anticipate the vast numbers of networks and network users currently in existence.
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
The newest version of IP that is designed for enhanced security and that can handle the addressing needs of growing networks.
A logical address assigned to each host on an IP network. It is used to identify a specific host on a specific network.
An essential set of programs and computer code that allows a computer operating system to control processor, disk, memory, and other functions central to its basic operation.
The time it takes for information to travel from the transmitting device to the receiving device.
Linux Integration Services (LIS)
Services for Hyper-V that support Linux virtual machines and Linux clients.
local area network (LAN)
A network of computers in relatively close proximity, such as on the same floor or in the same building.
A core within a multi-core processor that can run its own executable threads.
media access control (MAC)
address Also called a physical or device address, the hexadecimal number permanently assigned to a network interface and used by the MAC sublayer (a communications sublayer for controlling how computers share communications on the same network).
A single message is sent from one location and received at several different locations that are subscribed to receive that message.
The capability of a computer to run two or more programs at the same time.
Running several program processes or parts (threads) at the same time.
A process used to translate a computer's logical or host name into a network address, such as to a dotted decimal address associated with a computer—and vice versa.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Established by the United States Congress, this agency is a physical science laboratory that works to research and standardize measurements and applied technologies. NIST is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and was first created to help make U.S. businesses more competitive.
A name or identifier used in older Windows systems to uniquely identify a computer.
A communications system that enables computer users to share computer equipment, software, data, voice, and video transmissions.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Sometimes used by firewalls, proxy servers, and routers, NAT translates IP addresses on an internal or local network so that the actual IP addresses cannot be determined on the Internet, because the address seen on the Internet is a decoy address used from a pool of decoy addresses.
network interface card (NIC)
An adaptor board or device to connect a workstation, server, or other network device to a network medium. The connection can be wired or wireless.
A unit of data transmitted on a network that contains control and address information as well as routing information.
A Windows Server 2016 feature that enables a failed disk in RAID (a set of disks for redundant storage) to be rebuilt significantly faster.
A network on which any computer can communicate with other networked computers on an equal or peer basis without going through an intermediary, such as a server or host.
A processor chip plugged into a processor socket on a motherboard in a computer.
Running two or more programs simultaneously so that each program runs in an area of memory separate from areas used by other programs.
A protected memory space allocated for the Windows Server 2016 kernel that cannot be directly accessed by software applications.
A computer program or portion of a program that is currently running. One large program might start several smaller programs or processes.
A receptacle on a computer motherboard into which a processor chip is plugged.
A strictly defined set of rules for communication across a network that specifies how networked data is formatted for transmission, how it is transmitted, and how it is interpreted at the receiving end.
A database used to store information about the configuration, program setup, devices drivers, and other data important to the setup of Windows operating systems, such as Windows Server 2016.
A device that connects networks, is able to read IP addresses, and can route or forward packets of data to designated networks.
A file of shell commands that are run as a unit within the shell. The shell interprets the commands to the operating system one line at a time. To run the contents of a script, the name of that script usually must be entered at the command line. Scripts save time because commands don't have to be typed individually by the user. Another advantage is that the users do not have to memorize the exact sequence of a set of commands each time they want to accomplish a certain task.
A single computer that provides extensive multiuser access to network resources.
A model in which access to the network and resources, and the management of resources, is accomplished through one or more servers.
A comprehensive server management tool offered through Windows Server 2016.
A command-line environment, also called a command interpreter, that enables communication with an operating system. Commands that are run within a shell are typically specific to that shell (although different shells sometimes use the same or similar commands, particularly in UNIX and Linux).
A relational database system from Microsoft that is used to build enterprise databases.
An IP address that is assigned to a client and remains in use until it is manually changed.
Used with storage tiering to enable you to move specific files to a given storage location and ensure that those files are always kept in that location.
A Windows Server 2016 feature that allows selected blocks of data to be moved to specific locations, such as to solid state storage instead of disk storage.
Used to distinguish between the network part and the host part of the IP address and to enable networks to be divided into subnets.
symmetric multiprocessor (SMP)
computer A computer that uses more than one processor.
total cost of ownership (TCO)
The cost of installing and maintaining computers and equipment on a network, which includes hardware, software, maintenance, and support costs.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
This transport protocol, which is part of the TCP/IP suite, establishes communication sessions between networked software application processes and provides for reliable end-to-end delivery of data by controlling data flow.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
The default protocol suite installed with Windows Server 2016 that enables network communication.
A message that goes from one single computer to another single computer.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
A connectionless protocol that can be used with IP, instead of TCP.
Enables you to run different desktops side-by-side, such as having one desktop working with programming tools and another desktop using server administration tools.
An instance of a discrete operating system running within virtual server software on one computer. Multiple virtual machines can run within the virtual server software on one computer.
A logical processor in a computer that is used by a virtual machine.
A computer running virtual server software that enables configuring multiple virtual machines. See virtual machine.
Software that enables one computer to run two or more operating systems that are live at the same time and in which one application running in one operating system does not interfere with an application running in a different operating system.
Software available from Microsoft to protect against spyware, adware, viruses, and other malware.
Windows Internet Name Service (WINS)
A Windows Server service that enables the server to convert NetBIOS computer names to IP addresses for network and Internet communications. (NetBIOS is an applications programming interface to provide programs with a consistent command set for using network services.)
Windows Nano Server
An installation option in Windows Server 2016 that provides an even smaller footprint than Windows Server Core and is intended for a remotely administered server in a cloud or datacenter.
A Windows command-line interface that offers scripting capabilities as well.
Windows Server Core
A minimum Windows Server 2016 configuration, designed to function in a fashion similar to traditional UNIX and Linux servers by offering a command-line interface and only the minimum services needed to get the job done.
As used in Microsoft networks, a number of users who share drive and printer resources in an independent peer-to-peer relationship.
A computer that has its own central processing unit (CPU) and can be used as a stand-alone or network computer for word processing, spreadsheet creation, or other software applications.
This set is often in folders with...
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Chapter 1
CNT120_Chapter 8 Terms
Intro to Win Server 2016 - Key Terms
Active Directory Ch. 1 and 2
You might also like...
Chapter 1, Introduction to Windows Server 2008 - M…
IT Fundamentals - Networking
Chapter 3 and 4 Computer Literacy
Computer Security - Everything and secur…
Other sets by this creator
CNT135 Chapter 08 Key Terms
CNT135 Chapter 07 Key Terms
CNT135 Chapter 06 Key Terms
Other Quizlet sets
Astronomy Final Exam
Multiple Choice Questions; Human Biology- Unit2
Edexcel A level Design & Technology - Product Desi…
Psychological Disorder Quiz