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Terms in this set (13)
Describe the basic characteristics of members belonging to class Aves. (4)
-Feathers (insulation, lift and thrust, camouflage, display)
-Lack Teeth, but have gizzard
One of the skeletal adaptations for bird flight includes pneumatic bones. Describe this flight adaptation.
Pneumatic bones are major bones hollow with crisscrossing struts that are connected to the respiratory system.
Another avian skeletal adaptation for flight is the fusion of bones. These bones include the synsacrum, pygostyle, and furculum. Describe the adaptive features of each of these bones.
Fused bones contribute to strength and stability. Also, fused bones means fewer muscles, therefore reducing the weight of the bird.
The pelvis, back, and tail all fused together. Adaptive feature: the shock force from beating wings is transferred to the air not absorbed by the body.
The tail bones fused together. Adaptive feature: supports the tail feathers when they are spread to increase lift or tilt to steer the bird during flight
The collar bone is fused. Adaptive feature: Compresses and rebounds during flight
Describe the adaptive significance of the uncinated process. (4)
Unicinated process- overlaps the ribs and strengthens the wall of the body, strengthens the rib cage under thrust, component of the ventilatory mechanics of birds, functions in specific mode of locomotion.
The main flight muscles of birds are the pectoralis and the supracoracodieus. What is the collective weight of these two muscles?
Describe how the avian reproductive system has been adapted for flight.
Females only have one ovary and the reproductive systems in both females and males are smaller for most of the year and enlarged only during breeding season.
Describe how the avian urinary system has been adapted for flight.
Their urinary system is lightweight with no urinary bladder.
Distinguish between the location and function of the eyes of predatory birds and birds of prey.
Large eyes, with a wider pupil, larger lens, and increased retinal surface can collect more ambient light. Birds of prey: Birds with eyes on the sides of their heads have a wide visual field, useful for detecting predators. Predatory Birds: have eyes on the front of their heads and have binocular vision characteristics that enable them to estimate distances when hunting.
Most birds do not have a keen sense of smell. Describe three species that do.
Turkey vultures, kiwis, tubenoses
What common features do birds share with reptiles that reveal their close evolutionary relationships? (5)
-Have a skull articulating with the first vertebrae by means of a single ball and socket joint (mammals have two)
-Have a simple middle ear with only one bone (stapes)
-The mandible is composed of 5 or 6 bones on each size (mammals only have one)
-lay yolked, polar eggs
-In birds and some reptiles females have 2 different sex chromosomes (Z and W)
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