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The ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below


Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus.


Diseases that affect the descending corticospinal tracts may limit inhibition of the sacral somatic motor neurons and thus could result in urinary incontinence.


Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimualtes the secretion of ADH, thereby reducing reabsorption by the collecting duct.


Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well as promotes synthesis of calcitriol.


The countercurrent multiplier mechanism for water conservation was discovered by limiting studies to humans and thus hypothesizing how form determines function.


The thick segment of the nephron loop is impermeable to water


Glomerular filtration occures because glomerular oncotic pressure overrides glomerular blood pressure.


Angiotensin-converting enzyme is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.


Cells in the cleft between the afferent and efferent arterioles and among capillaries of the glomerulus are known as mesangial cells.


Glomerular capillaries suffer little damage from hypertension becuase of the protective influence of the afferent arterioles.


The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate.


The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes.

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