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Unit 10 Personality: The Trait Perspective
Terms in this set (17)
Gordon Allport developed trait theory, which defines personality in terms of people's characteristic ___ and conscious ___. Unlike Freud, he was generally less interested in ___ individual traits than in ___ them.
behaviors; motives; explaining; describing
The ___-___ ___ ___ classifies people according to Carl Jung's personality types. Although recently criticized for its lack of predictive value, this test has been widely used in ___ and ___ counseling.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; business; career
To reduce the number of traits to a few basic ones, psychologists use the statistical procedure of ___ ___. Hans and Sybil Eysenck think that two or three genetically influenced personality dimensions are sufficient; these include ___-___ and emotional ___-__.
Factor analysis; extroversion-introversion; stability-instability
Some researchers believe that extroverts seek stimulation because their level of ___ ___ is relatively low. PET scans reveal an area of the brain's ___ lobe that is less active in (extroverts/introverts) than in (extroverts/introverts). Dopamine and dopamine-related neural activity tend to be higher in (extroverts/introverts).
Brain arousal; frontal; extroverts; introverts; extroverts
Research increasingly reveals that our ___ play an important role in defining our ___ and ___ style.
genes; temperament; behavioral
Jerome Kagan attributes differences in children's ___ and ___ to autonomic nervous system reactivity.
Personality differences among dogs, birds, and other animals (are/aren't) stable.
Questionnaires that categorize personality traits are called ____ ___.
The most widely used of all such personality test is ___ ___ ___ ___; its questions are grouped into ___ clinical scales.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; 10
This test (MMPI) was developed by testing a large pool of items and selecting those that differentiated particular individuals; in other words, the test was ___ derived.
Researchers have arrived at a cluster of five factors that seem to describe the major features of personality. List and briefly describe the Big Five: a-e
a.) Conscientiousness- disorganized, careful b.) Agreeableness- soft-hearted, trusting c.) Neuroticism- calm, secure d.) Openness- imaginative, independent e.) Extraversion- sociable, affectionate
While some traits wane a bit during early and middle adulthood, others increase. For example, as young adults mature and learn to manage their commitments, ___ increases. From the thirties through the sixties, ___ increases.
In adulthood, the Big Five are quite (stable/variable), with heritability estimated at ___ percent or more for each dimension. Moreover, these traits (do/do not) predict other attributes.
stable; 50; do
Human behavior is influenced both by our inner __ and by the external ___. The issue of which of these is the more important influence on personality is called the ___-___.
traits; situations; person-situation
To be considered a personality trait, a characteristic must persist over ___ and across ___. Research studies reveal that personality trait scores (correlate/do not correlate) with scores obtained seven years later. The consistency of specific behaviors from one situation to the next is (predictably consistent/not predictably consistent).
time; situations; correlate; not predictably consistent
An individual's score on a personality test (is/isn't) very predictive of his or her behavior in any given situation.
People's expressive styles, which include their ____, manner of ___, and ___, are quite (consistent/inconsistent), which (does/doesn't) reveal distinct personality traits.
animation; speaking; gestures; consistent; does
Recommended textbook explanations
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