Prentice Hall Chemistry Chapter 13

terms and content questions.
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kinetic energy
The energy an object has because of its motion.
kinetic theory
All matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion.
molecules/atom
the particles in a gas usually consist of.
insignificant
The particles in a gas are considered to be small, hard spheres with an _____ volume.
empty space
what is between particles in a gas?
rapid, constant, and random
the motion of the particles in a gas are _______, _______, ____ _______.
elastic
All collisions between particles in a gas are perfectly _____.
constant
During an elastic collision, kinetic energy is transferred without loss from one particle to another, and the total kinetic energy remains ______.
gas pressure
Results from the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object.
moving particles exert a force when they collide with other particles.
What causes gas pressure?
gas pressure
______ is the result of simultaneous collisions of billions of rapidly moving particles in a gas with an object.
vacuum
An empty space with no particles and no pressure.
atmospheric pressure
results from the collisions of molecules and atoms in the air with object, results in the Earth's atmosphere.
barometer
Device that is used to measure atmospheric pressure.
pascal
The SI unit of pressure.
standard atmosphere
The pressure required to support 760 mm of mercury in a mercury barometer at 25 degrees Celsius.
atm, mmHg, kPa
the numerical relationship among the three units of pressure:
1 ___ = 760 ____ = 101.3 _____
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
temperature of 0*c and a pressure of 101.3 kPa, or 1 atm.
energy
as a substance is heated its particles absorb ___. Some of which is stored in the particles.
absolute zero
the temperature at which the motion of particles theoretically ceases.
Kelvin
The ____ temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substance.
attraction
the key difference between gases and liquids: there are no ____ between the particles in a gas, but there is between particles in a liquid.
solids and liquids
The two condensed states of matter
vaporization
The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor.
evaporation
the conversion of a liquid to gas or vapor with NO boiling.
escape
During evaporation, only those molecules with a certain minimum kinetic energy can ____ from the surface of the liquid.
heating
_____ the liquid increases the average kinetic energy of its particles.
temperature
as evaporation takes place, the liquids ____ decreases. Therefore, evaporation is a cooling process.
vapor pressure
Measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid.
evaporation, condensation
Liquid - (_____) - Vapor - (______) - Liquid. (Process between each phase)
dynamic equilibrium
In a system of constant vapor pressure, a ______ ______ exists between the vapor and the liquid. the system is in equilibrium because the rate of evaporation of liquid equals the rate of condensation of vapor.
vaporize
When a liquid is heated to a temperature at which particles throughout the liquid have enough kinetic energy to ______, the liquid begins to boil.
boiling point
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid.
normal boiling point
The boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 101.3 kPa.
solids
The general properties of ____ reflect the orderly arrangement of their particles and the fixed locations of their particles.
melting point
the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid.
melting, freezing
solid - ____ - liquid - _____ - solid (process between each phase)
crystal
solid that has particles that are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three - dimensional pattern called a crystal lattice.
shape
the ___ of a crystal reflects the arrangement of the particles within the solid
unit cell.
The smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the geometric shape of the crystal.
Allotropes
two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state.
amorphous solid
Lacks an ordered internal structure, but is still a solid. Ex: plastic, rubber, and asphalt.
glass
Transparent fusion product of inorganic substances that have cooled into a rigid state without crystallizing.
sublimation
the change of a substance from a solid to a vapor without passing through the liquid state.
vapor, atmospheric
sublimation occurs in solids with ____ pressures that exceed _____ pressure at or near room temperature.
phase diagram
gives the conditions of temperature and pressure at which a substance exists as solid, liquid, and gas (or vapor).
line
The conditions of pressure and temperature at which two phases exist in equilibrium are indicated on a phase diagram by a _____ separating the phases.
triple point
describes the only set of conditions at which all three phases can exist in equilibrium with one another.