All matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion.
the particles in a gas usually consist of.
The particles in a gas are considered to be small, hard spheres with an _____ volume.
what is between particles in a gas?
rapid, constant, and random
the motion of the particles in a gas are _______, _______, ____ _______.
All collisions between particles in a gas are perfectly _____.
During an elastic collision, kinetic energy is transferred without loss from one particle to another, and the total kinetic energy remains ______.
Results from the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object.
moving particles exert a force when they collide with other particles.
What causes gas pressure?
______ is the result of simultaneous collisions of billions of rapidly moving particles in a gas with an object.
An empty space with no particles and no pressure.
results from the collisions of molecules and atoms in the air with object, results in the Earth's atmosphere.
Device that is used to measure atmospheric pressure.
The SI unit of pressure.
The pressure required to support 760 mm of mercury in a mercury barometer at 25 degrees Celsius.
atm, mmHg, kPa
the numerical relationship among the three units of pressure: 1 ___ = 760 ____ = 101.3 _____
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
temperature of 0*c and a pressure of 101.3 kPa, or 1 atm.
as a substance is heated its particles absorb ___. Some of which is stored in the particles.
the temperature at which the motion of particles theoretically ceases.
The ____ temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substance.
the key difference between gases and liquids: there are no ____ between the particles in a gas, but there is between particles in a liquid.
solids and liquids
The two condensed states of matter
The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor.
the conversion of a liquid to gas or vapor with NO boiling.
During evaporation, only those molecules with a certain minimum kinetic energy can ____ from the surface of the liquid.
_____ the liquid increases the average kinetic energy of its particles.
as evaporation takes place, the liquids ____ decreases. Therefore, evaporation is a cooling process.
Measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid.
Liquid - (_____) - Vapor - (______) - Liquid. (Process between each phase)
In a system of constant vapor pressure, a ______ ______ exists between the vapor and the liquid. the system is in equilibrium because the rate of evaporation of liquid equals the rate of condensation of vapor.
When a liquid is heated to a temperature at which particles throughout the liquid have enough kinetic energy to ______, the liquid begins to boil.
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid.
normal boiling point
The boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 101.3 kPa.
The general properties of ____ reflect the orderly arrangement of their particles and the fixed locations of their particles.
the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid.
solid - ____ - liquid - _____ - solid (process between each phase)
solid that has particles that are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three - dimensional pattern called a crystal lattice.
the ___ of a crystal reflects the arrangement of the particles within the solid
The smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the geometric shape of the crystal.
two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state.
Lacks an ordered internal structure, but is still a solid. Ex: plastic, rubber, and asphalt.
Transparent fusion product of inorganic substances that have cooled into a rigid state without crystallizing.
the change of a substance from a solid to a vapor without passing through the liquid state.
sublimation occurs in solids with ____ pressures that exceed _____ pressure at or near room temperature.
gives the conditions of temperature and pressure at which a substance exists as solid, liquid, and gas (or vapor).
The conditions of pressure and temperature at which two phases exist in equilibrium are indicated on a phase diagram by a _____ separating the phases.
describes the only set of conditions at which all three phases can exist in equilibrium with one another.