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48 terms

Nutrition- Chapter 8

Fluid Balance, Water and Alcohol
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Fluids
Substances composed of freely moving molecules, have ability to adapt to shape of container.
Adults body contains how much fluid
50-70%
How much fluid is held in intracellular fluid
Two-thirds
How much fluid is held in extracellular fluids
One-third
Extracellular Fluid
Fluid that flows outside of cells within blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
Plasma
Fluid portion of the blood that carries blood cells within arteries, veins and capillaries
Hyponatremia
Too little sodium in the blood, usually from water intoxication
Lean tissues have
Higher fluid content than fat tissues
Lean muscle is
70% fluid by weight
Fat tissue is
10-20% fluid by weight
Who has more lean tissue and more body fluid
Men
Lean tissue and fluid is lost with
Age
Solvent
Substance that is capable of mixing and breaking a variety of compounds
Substances dissolved in body fluids become
Ions, sugars, amino acids, vitamins and minerals
Blood Volume
Amount of fluid in the blood
Decreased blood volume can cause
Low blood pressure
Temperature increases
the flow of blood from vessels in warm body to core to vessels just under the skin. Sweat releases heat as evaporation of water cools skin and blood, then returns cooler blood to core of body.
Fluids
protect and lubricate body tissues and joints
Water is lost through
Urine, feces, sweat, exhalation
Thirst Mechanism
Collection of nerve cells within the hypothalamus, stimulates desire to drink fluids in response to increased concentration of sodium in blood or decrease in blood pressure.
Detects change and stimulates hormone that signals kidney to reduce urine flow and return water to blood stream.
Hypothalmus
Metabolic Water
By-product of the body's breakdown of fat, carbohydrates and protein. Contribute to 10-14% of the body's needs.
Recommended intake of water for men
3.0 liters (13 cups) 3,000ml and 700 ml from food
Recommended intake of water for women
2.2 Liters (9 cups)2,200ml and 500 ml from food
Heat Stroke
Potentially fatal response to high temperature, characterized by failure of body's heat regulating mechanism.
Symptoms of dehydration
Nausea, flushed skin and unable to concentrate.
Coma and death can result when loss of water exceeds
death
8% of total body weight
Hypoanatremia symptoms
Low blood sodium: continued thirst even with fluid intake, nausea, HA, inability to concentrate, confusion. Causes kidney to retain to much water.
If dehydrated drink:
1,500 ml (6 cups) water for each kilogram of body weight lost.
Symptoms of heat stroke
Rapid pulse, deep breathing, hot dry skin, high temperature, loss of consciousness, apply ice packs to axilla and groin, spray cold water on body.
Made from fermented fruits, vegetable and grains
Alcohol
Alcohol is a high energy compound of
7 Kcal/g
One drink is the amount of a beverage that contains --- of alcohol
0.5 fluid ounce
Alcohol is not digested but is
absorbed directly through stomach into small intestines
Alcohol is transported to
liver, where it is metabolized and released into blood stream and excreted in urine, exhalation and sweat.
Alcohol that is combined with --- may delay gastric empty and intestinal absorption of alcohol
Fat, Protein and Fiber
Women absorb about -- more alcohol than men
30-35%
Moderate alcohol consumption is linked to
Improved HDL lipids, reduced blood clots, appetite stimulation in elderly, lower risk of cognitive impairment and dementia.
Risks of alcohol consumption
Breast cancer, hypertension, obesity, reduced absorption of Thiamin Folate and B6, interacts with medications
Alcohol poisoning
Alcohol consumption that overwhelms the livers ability to detoxify the blood. Depresses part of brain that regulates breathing and cardiac function.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Groups of defects found in infants who's mothers abused alcohol during pregnancy. Impaired growth, facial deformities, cognitive, emotional and physical problems
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorder
Umbrella term describing range of effects that can occur in a child of a women who drinks during pregnancy.
Alcohol related neurodevelopment
Learning, behavior problems, attention, judgement, impulse control
Alcohol related birth defects
heart, kidney and other defects.
One
The lover can breakdown how many drinks per hour
0.06%
Consumption of alcohol can impair judgement, fine motor skills, coordination when the BAC level reaches
5 or more drinks on one occasion
Binge drinking
70%
Liquor that is 140 proof contains how much alcohol