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4 factors that limit flexibility
the elastic limits of the ligaments & tendons crosing the joints, the elesticity of the muscle tissue itself, the bone & joint structure, the skin
muscular endurance
the number of repeated contractions a muscle or muscle group can perform against a resistance without fatiguing
muscular strength
the maximum amount of force a muscle or muscle group can develop during a single contraction
Cardiorespiratory endurance
the ability of the heart, b lood, and lungs to deliver an adequate supply of oxygen to exercising muscles.
Body composition
the sum of fat weight and fat free weight
Flexibility
the amount of movement that can be accomplished at a joint
Absolute strength gains in men are greater than in women because?
testerone in men causes greater hypertrophy and greater absolute strength gains
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood by the heart & lungs
systemic circulation
cirvulation of the blood by the rest of the body
performance interval training
to improve competitive performance
fitness interval training
designed to improve overall fitness
slow twitch muscle fibers
Type I - have greater aerobic capacity - dark or red in color
fast-twitch muscle fibers
Type II - have less aerobic capacity - white in color
Cardiac muscle
found only in the heart and is involuntary - contracting by nature
Skeletal muscle
is voluntary; contracting by a build up of lactic acid
Immediate muscle soreness
caused by a buildup of lactic acid
Delayed onset muscle soreness
caused by small tears in the connective tissue surrounding the muscle and within the muscle itself.
ATP
aerobic - utilized within the first 30 seconds of exercise
Lactic Acid
builds up after 30 minutes of heavy exercise leaving you tired
Glycogen
will be utilized from the oxidative system while running a marathon in 3 hours, leaving you fatigued afterward
Body fat percentage of a fit woman is?
21 - 24%
Body fat percentage of a fit man is?
14 - 17 %
muscle pump
the rhythmic squeezing action of large muscles against the veins within these muscles.
ejection fraction
is 50% at rest and can increase to 100% during exercise
anaerobic threshold
is reached somewhere between 50% to 85% of maximal effort
optimum exercise intensity for fitness improvements is in the range of approximately?
60 - 90% of maximum heart rate
3 Joint Types
fibrous, cartilaginous & synovial
fibrous joints
held tightly together by fibrous connective tissue & have no joint cavity (little/no movement) bones of skull, joint between tibia & fibula, joint between radius & ulna
cartilaginous joints
bones joined by cartilage. No joint cavity(little/no movement) hyaline cartilage that connects ribs to sternum & fibrous cartilage that separate the bodies of vertebrae in spinal column
sagittal plane
a longitudinal line that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sections.
frontal plane
a longitudinal line that separates the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts
transverse plane (horizontal plane)
divides the body or any of its parts into superior(toward the head) or inferior sections(away from the head)
dorsal
the top surface of the foot and hands
plantar
the sole or bottom of the foot
lumbar
the regional term referring to the portion of the back between the abdomen and pelvis
thoracic
the regional term referring to the portion of the body between the neck & the abdomen (chest)
cervical
regional term referring to neck
flexion and extension
occur in the sagittal plane
abduction and adduction
occur in the frontal plane
Rotation of the femur & humerus occur at?
femur/hip joint & humerus/shoulder joint
supination & pronation of the forearm occur in what plane?
transverse plane
1 gram of protein & 1 gram of carbs has how many calories?
4 calories
1 gram of fat has how many calories?
9 calories
What is the moderate intensity level for VO2?
40 - 59%
Plyometrics
Jump training - stretching the muscles prior to contracting them
What is the stretch reflex?
Myotatic reflex
4 Components of resistance exercise that are key to improving functional performance?
coordination, range of motion, type of contraction, speed of movement
Rest period for muscular endurance
20 - 30 seconds
Rest period for hypertrophy/ strength
30 - 120 seconds
Rest period for maximum strength/power
2 - 5 minutes
active isolated stretching
performed in sets of a specified number of reps,. with a goal of isolating an individual muscle in each set.
elastic stretch
elongation of tissues that recovers when tension is removed.
congnitive stage of learning
learners make many errors
associative stage of learning
learned basics-can refine skills
autonomous stage of learning
skills are automatic
impingement syndrome
difficulty performing exercises that require the arms to be above the head for extended periods of time ex:overhead press, military press, lat pull downs, incline press