A destructive, rotating column of air that has very high wind speeds and that may be visible as a funnel-shaped cloud
destructive, deadly, costly, devastating
spinning on an axis
Ice pellets larger than 5 millimeters in diameter formed in cumulonimbus clouds by strong updrafts of wind
a rising column of air
Measures the intensity of the tornado - F0 - F5
to leave a threatened area
peaceful center of the hurricane
sudden increase in wind
a tropical storm that has winds over 74-155+ miles per hour
an unusually high rise in the level of ocean water during a hurricane that can create a wall of water
hurricanes in the western Pacific Ocean
regional weather patterns over a long period of time
The state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place
to bend or throw back heat from a surface
to take in heat
The thin blanket of gases that surrounds the earth
the first day of fall
energy from the sun
when heat moves between one object and another object by direct contact.
heat transfer through air or water
the circulation of heat because of heat differences
the circulating flow of air due to temperature differences
movement of heat from one place to another
a large body of air with the same temperature and moisture throughout
A boundary or transition between two different air masses
forms from a cumulonimbus cloud- usually brief, heavy storm that consists of rain, strong winds, lightning, and thunder
is an electric discharge that occurs between a positively charged area and a negatively charged area- can occur between two clouds or between the bottom of a cloud and the ground
can be caused by heaving rains during a thuderstorm
forms at low pressure systems- destructive, rotating colum of air that has very very high wind speeds, low central pressure that touches the ground
spinning column of air that moves at the bottom of a cumulonimbus cloud
a severe storm that develops over tropical oceans in the Atlantic, Caribbean, eastern Pacific Oceans and has strong winds of 74+ mph
surrounds the eye- a group of cumulonimbus clouds that produce heavy rains and strong winds- this is the strongest part of the hurricane
Colder water and land
_______________ ____________________ and __________ causes a hurriance to die because they do not provide the warm moist air the hurricane needs to power itself
located in the central part of the US- where most tornadoes occur becasue of a continental polar air mass from Canada mixes with a maritime tropical air mass from the Gulf of Mexico
most hurricanes originate in this area in the tropics
a global wind that moves west to east
a global wind that moves east to west.
a global wind that moves toward the equator turning west as it flows
a global wind 6 miles high that moves generally west to east
a large body of air with the same temperature and moisture throughout
a local land and sea breeze that occurs seasonally in Southeast Asia and India.
A land breeze occurs at this time.
A sea breeze occurs at this time.
Lines joining places on the map that have the same air pressure
This pressure center bring clear dry weather
This pressure center brings cloudy, rainy weather
measures wind speed
A wind that blows from sea to land in summer when the land is warmer than the ocean. The Process: *land warms faster than sea *coastal land is hotter=low air pressure *water is cooler=high air pressure *air moves from high air pressure(sea) to low air pressure(land)
A wind blows from the land to sea at night in the summer when the land is colder than the ocean. The Process: *land cools faster than sea *coastal land is colder=high air pressure *water is warmer=low air pressure *air moves from high air pressure(land) to low air pressure (sea)
air current that goes west to east across U.S. ; narrow belt of high speed winds that blows near the top of the troposphere; divides the cooler air in the north from the warmer air in the south; moves air masses; influences U.S. weather
line with barbs is a cold front. The barbs point in the direction the front is moving.
line with half circles is a warm front. The top of the arch points in the direction the front is moving.
a front where a warm air mass is caught between two colder air masses and brings cool temperatures and large amounts of rain or snow
when a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet and no movement occurs
The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere
An instrument used to measure temperature
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
What is a current?
a stream of water that flows to the ocean like a river.
What causes ocean currents?
What do ocean currents affect?
How do currents affect climate?
Cold water cools the air and land along coasts creating a cooler climate.
What is the surface current that carries warm water along the eastern coast of the US?
The Gulf Stream
The climate in the eastern coast is _____ because of the water that the gulf stream carries?
The Gulf stream crosses what ocean?
Where else besides the eastern coast of the US does the Gulf Stream bring a warmer climate?
Europe's west coast
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface like hail, snow, sleet, rain;clouds get heavy and the air cannot hold it anymore
The change of a liquid to a gas; the sun heats up and turns it into vapor(gas)
Gas to Liquid; gas gets colder and changes back to liquid , forming clouds
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
Part of the water cycle where an excess of water runs down and does not sink into the soil and eventually makes it to the rivers, lakes, and oceans.
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
Magma that reaches Earth's surface
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
a residue that settles in the bottom of something
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
A rock changed by heat or pressure
A rock formed when magma cools
A cycle in which different types of rocks are formed
The Rock Cycle
What is the first step in the formation of sedimentary rocks?
Weathering and Erosion
In the rock cycle, an igneous rock can melt and turn into __________
broken up pieces of rock or other materials
How many types of sedimentary rocks are there?
By 1968 Wegener's hypothesis had become a theory known as _________ ___________
The lithosphere is a _____________ ________ ______
strong rigid layer
Below the lithosphere is a weaker, hotter layer called the ___________________. This is what allows the outer shell to move.
The lithosphere is broken up into segements called ________________.
There are ___ major lithospheric plates
1. South American 2. North American 3. Pacific 4. Australian-Indian 5. Antarctic 6. Eurasian 7. African.......
are the 7 major lithospheric plates
The largest plate is .........
The Pacific Plate
Each plate is in _____________ _____________.
There are ___ types of plate boundaries.
Most earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building occur along __________ _____________.
Divergent plate boundaries are where two plate boundaries move ________.
Convergent plate boundaries are where two plate boundaries move _________________.
Transform plate boundaries are where two plate boundaries _________ past each other.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge extends along a __________-__________ path down the center of the Atlantic Ocean.
As the plates move apart, the gap is filled with __________ ______ that oozes up from the hot mantle below.
Divergent plate boundaries within a continent can force the continent to into 2 continents. This is called ___________ __________.
After much stretching, continents separate like South America and __________ did 100 million years ago.
When the Arabian Peninsula separated from Africa, the rift valley became a long, narrow sea which is the _________ ______.
As new oceanic lithosphere is forming at divergent plate boundaries, older pieces of oceanic lithosphere are being _____________ along convergent plate boundaries.
When plates move toward each other, one plate slides __________ the other.
1. Where continental lithosphere ovverides oceanic lithosphere. 2. When one oceanic lithosphere goes below (subducts) another oceanic lithosphere. 3. When two continental lithospheres collide........
Is where convergent plate boundaries form.
The area where the oceanic lithosphere descends into the asthenosphere is called a ______________ ________.
A subduction zone produces a deep ___________ ________.
The volcanoes of the Andes Mountains are the product of magma made by the subduction of the __________ _________ beneath South America.
These volcanoes often erupt explosively, generating large amounts of volcanic ______, ___________, and _________.
ash, pumice and gases
One goes below the other creating a ___________.
Water triggers melting rock, and this triggers the creation of _______________ on the ocean floor.
A super continent, means all land
A modern scientific theory which describes the movement of Earth's outer layer.
Evidence Alfred Wegener gave to back up his hypothesis for plate tectonics
1. Fit of the continents 2. Fossil evidence 3. Evidence from rock 4. Climatic Evidence
What two continents fit together like a jigsaw puzzle?
South America and Africa
______________ of the same ancient plants and animals are foung on widely separarted continents. Example: South America and Africa are widely separated by the Atlantic Ocean, yet they share some of the same fossils.
The picture that must be matched in the "Continental Drift Puzzle" is represented by.......
Rocks of similar type and age, and mountain belts
Mountains of about the same age and structure are found where?
The British Isle and Scandinavia
Earth scientists have learned that about 250 million years ago, vast _____________ ______________ covered portions of Earth's continent.
The Earth's Interior has ___ major layers.
The center is called the _____________ _______, a solid, iron-rich sphere with a diameter of 1,511 miles.
Surronding the inner core is the ______________ ___________ a fluid metallic layer about 1,410 miles thick.
Beyong the outer core is the _________, a heavy rock layer that is about 1,789 miles thick.
The outermost layer is the ________. It is 5-40 miles thick.
The crust is divided into two parts, what are they?
1. Continental Crust 2. Oceanic Crust
The asthenosphere is in the upper mantle and is made up of hot, rocky material that is capable of very ________ movement.
Then weak rock within the asthenosphere allow the lithosphere to ________.
Oceans cover how much of the Earth?
An __________ ____________ determines water depth by measuring the time required for a sonic wave to travel from a ship to the sea floor and back.
The ocean is divided into 3 broad zones, what are they?