237 terms

Science final test review

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conduction
heat transfer through direct contact
tornado
A destructive, rotating column of air that has very high wind speeds and that may be visible as a funnel-shaped cloud
catastrophic
destructive, deadly, costly, devastating
rotating
spinning on an axis
hail
Ice pellets larger than 5 millimeters in diameter formed in cumulonimbus clouds by strong updrafts of wind
updraft
a rising column of air
fujita scale
Measures the intensity of the tornado - F0 - F5
evacuate
to leave a threatened area
eye
peaceful center of the hurricane
gust
sudden increase in wind
hurricane
a tropical storm that has winds over 74-155+ miles per hour
storm surge
an unusually high rise in the level of ocean water during a hurricane that can create a wall of water
typhoon
hurricanes in the western Pacific Ocean
climate
regional weather patterns over a long period of time
weather
The state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place
reflect
to bend or throw back heat from a surface
absorb
to take in heat
atmosphere
The thin blanket of gases that surrounds the earth
autumnal equinox
the first day of fall
solar energy
energy from the sun
conduction
when heat moves between one object and another object by direct contact.
convection
heat transfer through air or water
convection current
the circulation of heat because of heat differences
wind
the circulating flow of air due to temperature
differences
heat transfer
movement of heat from one place to another
air mass
a large body of air with the same temperature and moisture throughout
weather front
A boundary or transition between two different air masses
thunderstorm
forms from a cumulonimbus cloud- usually brief, heavy storm that consists of rain, strong winds, lightning, and thunder
lightning
is an electric discharge that occurs between a positively charged area and a negatively charged area- can occur between two clouds or between the bottom of a cloud and the ground
flooding
can be caused by heaving rains during a thuderstorm
tornado
forms at low pressure systems- destructive, rotating colum of air that has very very high wind speeds, low central pressure that touches the ground
funnel cloud
spinning column of air that moves at the bottom of a cumulonimbus cloud
hurricane
a severe storm that develops over tropical oceans in the Atlantic, Caribbean, eastern Pacific Oceans and has strong winds of 74+ mph
eye wall
surrounds the eye- a group of cumulonimbus clouds that produce heavy rains and strong winds- this is the strongest part of the hurricane
Colder water and land
_______________ ____________________ and __________ causes a hurriance to die because they do not provide the warm moist air the hurricane needs to power itself
Tornado Alley
located in the central part of the US- where most tornadoes occur becasue of a continental polar air mass from Canada mixes with a maritime tropical air mass from the Gulf of Mexico
equator
most hurricanes originate in this area in the tropics
westerlies
a global wind that moves west to east
easterlies
a global wind that moves east to west.
tradewinds
a global wind that moves toward the equator turning west as it flows
jet stream
a global wind 6 miles high that moves generally west to east
air mass
a large body of air with the same temperature and moisture throughout
monsoon
a local land and sea breeze that occurs seasonally in Southeast Asia and India.
A land breeze occurs at this time.
night
A sea breeze occurs at this time.
day
isobars
Lines joining places on the map that have the same air pressure
H
This pressure center bring clear dry weather
L
This pressure center brings cloudy, rainy weather
anemometer
measures wind speed
sea breeze
A wind that blows from sea to land in summer when the land is warmer than the ocean.
The Process:
*land warms faster than sea
*coastal land is hotter=low air pressure
*water is cooler=high air pressure
*air moves from high air pressure(sea) to low air pressure(land)
land breeze
A wind blows from the land to sea at night in the summer when the land is colder than the ocean.
The Process:
*land cools faster than sea
*coastal land is colder=high air pressure
*water is warmer=low air pressure
*air moves from high air pressure(land) to low air pressure (sea)
jetstream
air current that goes west to east across U.S. ; narrow belt of high speed winds that blows near the top of the troposphere; divides the cooler air in the north from the warmer air in the south; moves air masses; influences U.S. weather
cold front
line with barbs is a cold front. The barbs point in the direction the front is moving.
warm front
line with half circles is a warm front. The top of the arch points in the direction the front is moving.
occluded front
a front where a warm air mass is caught between two colder air masses and brings cool temperatures and large amounts of rain or snow
stationary front
when a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet and no movement occurs
humidity
The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere
thermometer
An instrument used to measure temperature
barometer
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
What is a current?
a stream of water that flows to the ocean like a river.
What causes ocean currents?
wind
What do ocean currents affect?
Climate
How do currents affect climate?
Cold water cools the air and land along coasts creating a cooler climate.
What is the surface current that carries warm water along the eastern coast of the US?
The Gulf Stream
The climate in the eastern coast is _____ because of the water that the gulf stream carries?
Warmer
The Gulf stream crosses what ocean?
Atlantic
Where else besides the eastern coast of the US does the Gulf Stream bring a warmer climate?
Europe's west coast
Precipitation
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface like hail, snow, sleet, rain;clouds get heavy and the air cannot hold it anymore
evaporation
The change of a liquid to a gas; the sun heats up and turns it into vapor(gas)
condensation
Gas to Liquid; gas gets colder and changes back to liquid , forming clouds
transpiration
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
runoff
Part of the water cycle where an excess of water runs down and does not sink into the soil and eventually makes it to the rivers, lakes, and oceans.
rock
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
rock cycle
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
igneous rock
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
lava
Magma that reaches Earth's surface
metamorphic rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
sediment
a residue that settles in the bottom of something
sedimentary rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
compaction
the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
deposition
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.
erosion
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
A rock changed by heat or pressure
Metamorphic Rock
A rock formed when magma cools
Igneous Rock
A cycle in which different types of rocks are formed
The Rock Cycle
What is the first step in the formation of sedimentary rocks?
Weathering and Erosion
In the rock cycle, an igneous rock can melt and turn into __________
Magma
broken up pieces of rock or other materials
Sediments
How many types of sedimentary rocks are there?
3
By 1968 Wegener's hypothesis had become a theory known as _________ ___________
plate tectonics
The lithosphere is a _____________ ________ ______
strong rigid layer
Below the lithosphere is a weaker, hotter layer called the ___________________. This is what allows the outer shell to move.
asthenosphere
The lithosphere is broken up into segements called ________________.
lithospheric plates
There are ___ major lithospheric plates
7
1. South American
2. North American
3. Pacific
4. Australian-Indian
5. Antarctic
6. Eurasian
7. African.......
are the 7 major lithospheric plates
The largest plate is .........
The Pacific Plate
Each plate is in _____________ _____________.
constant motion
There are ___ types of plate boundaries.
3
Most earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building occur along __________ _____________.
plate boundaries
Divergent plate boundaries are where two plate boundaries move ________.
apart
Convergent plate boundaries are where two plate boundaries move _________________.
together
Transform plate boundaries are where two plate boundaries _________ past each other.
grind
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge extends along a __________-__________ path down the center of the Atlantic Ocean.
north-south
As the plates move apart, the gap is filled with __________ ______ that oozes up from the hot mantle below.
molten rock
Divergent plate boundaries within a continent can force the continent to into 2 continents. This is called ___________ __________.
continental rifting
After much stretching, continents separate like South America and __________ did 100 million years ago.
Africa
When the Arabian Peninsula separated from Africa, the rift valley became a long, narrow sea which is the _________ ______.
Red Sea
As new oceanic lithosphere is forming at divergent plate boundaries, older pieces of oceanic lithosphere are being _____________ along convergent plate boundaries.
destroyed
When plates move toward each other, one plate slides __________ the other.
beneath
1. Where continental lithosphere ovverides oceanic lithosphere.
2. When one oceanic lithosphere goes below (subducts) another oceanic lithosphere.
3. When two continental lithospheres collide........
Is where convergent plate boundaries form.
The area where the oceanic lithosphere descends into the asthenosphere is called a ______________ ________.
subduction zone
A subduction zone produces a deep ___________ ________.
oceanic trench
The volcanoes of the Andes Mountains are the product of magma made by the subduction of the __________ _________ beneath South America.
Nazca Plate
These volcanoes often erupt explosively, generating large amounts of volcanic ______, ___________, and _________.
ash, pumice and gases
One goes below the other creating a ___________.
trench
Water triggers melting rock, and this triggers the creation of _______________ on the ocean floor.
volcanoes
Pangea
A super continent, means all land
plate tectonics
A modern scientific theory which describes the movement of Earth's outer layer.
Evidence Alfred Wegener gave to back up his hypothesis for plate tectonics
1. Fit of the continents
2. Fossil evidence
3. Evidence from rock
4. Climatic Evidence
What two continents fit together like a jigsaw puzzle?
South America and Africa
______________ of the same ancient plants and animals are foung on widely separarted continents. Example: South America and Africa are widely separated by the Atlantic Ocean, yet they share some of the same fossils.
Fossils
The picture that must be matched in the "Continental Drift Puzzle" is represented by.......
Rocks of similar type and age, and mountain belts
Mountains of about the same age and structure are found where?
The British Isle and Scandinavia
Earth scientists have learned that about 250 million years ago, vast _____________ ______________ covered portions of Earth's continent.
Ice sheets
The Earth's Interior has ___ major layers.
4
The center is called the _____________ _______, a solid, iron-rich sphere with a diameter of 1,511 miles.
inner core
Surronding the inner core is the ______________ ___________ a fluid metallic layer about 1,410 miles thick.
outer core
Beyong the outer core is the _________, a heavy rock layer that is about 1,789 miles thick.
mantle
The outermost layer is the ________. It is 5-40 miles thick.
crust
The crust is divided into two parts, what are they?
1. Continental Crust
2. Oceanic Crust
The asthenosphere is in the upper mantle and is made up of hot, rocky material that is capable of very ________ movement.
slow
Then weak rock within the asthenosphere allow the lithosphere to ________.
move
Oceans cover how much of the Earth?
70%
An __________ ____________ determines water depth by measuring the time required for a sonic wave to travel from a ship to the sea floor and back.
echo sounder
The ocean is divided into 3 broad zones, what are they?
1. continental margins
2. ocean basins
3. oceanic ridges
Some continental margins have a wide, gently sloping submerged surface called a ______________ __________.
Continental shelf
A continental shelf is a flooded extension of a ________________.
continent
The seaward edge of the continental shelf is called the __________ _________.
continental slope
These trenches are typically parallel region that have chains of _________ _________________.
active volcanoes
Ocean basins tend to be flat because layer upon layer of ______________ have buried the rugged ocean bottom.
sediments
Sea water flowing through hot, volcanic rock sometimes creates geyser-like structures called _____________ _______________.
black smokers
Parts of the ocean have submerged (underwater) volcanic peaks called _____________.
seamounts
From the maps of the ocean floor came the discovery of the global __________ ____________ ___________.
oceanic ridge system.
seasons
Are caused by the tilt of the Earth on its axis; The angle at which the sunlight strikes the Earth
revolution
Earth's yearly orbit around the Sun
rotation
spinning of Earth on its imaginary axis, which takes about 24 hours to complete and causes day and night to occur
axis
an imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and its North and South Poles
hemisphere
Half of the earth, we have a Northern half and a Southern half
Winter
Northern hemisphere has this season when the North Pole is tilted away from the sun
Summer
Northern hemisphere has this season when it is tilted towards sun, receives more solar radiation
Winter
What season is the northern hemisphere in position C?
Spring
What season is the northern hemisphere in position D?
Fall
What season is the northern hemisphere in position B.
Orbit
Earth's yearly movement around the sun, also called revolution
Rotation of the Earth
What causes day/night?
Revolution around the Sun
What causes a year?
Earth's tilt
What causes Earth's seasons?
24 Hours
How long does earth take to rotate once on its axis?
365 Days
How long does Earth take to revolve around the sun?
solstice
two Latin words that mean sun and stop
equinox
equal night
Solar Eclipse
Lunar Eclipse
Solar Eclipse Diagram
Lunar Eclipse Diagram
When can you see a lunar eclipse?
Night
When can you see a solar eclipse?
Day time
Duration of a lunar eclipse
A few hours
Duration of a solar eclipse
A few minutes
Neap Tide
High Tide
Is a high or low tide is occurring at point D?
Low Tide
Is a high or low tide occurring at point A?
Spring Tide
Which tide occurs when the moon, the sun, and Earth are in a straight line?
Twice
How often does a high tide occur at a specific location each day?
6
How many hours pass between a high tide and a low tide?
12
How many hours pass between first high tide and second high tide?
Gravity
___________ pulls the Earth's ocean water and causes tides.
moon phases
The changing appearances of the Moon as seen from Earth
full moon
the phase of the moon in which we see the entire moon lighted, and it appears bright and round
third quarter moon
The phase of the moon when it is three-quarters of the way through its orbit, and we see half of the moon lighted
crescent moon
the phase of the moon in which only a curved edge of the moon's side that faced earth is illuminated,
lasts about 6 days, can be a small sliver or almost a quarter moon.
gibbous moon
when the size of the illuminated portion of the moon is greater than half but not a full moon,
lasts about 6 days can be almost all white or just a little more than 1/2 white
waxing moon
When the Moon appears to get bigger
waning moon
When the Moon appears to get smaller
New Moon
Waxing Crescent
First Quarter
Waxing Gibbous
Full Moon
Waning Gibbous
Third Quarter
Waning Crescent
All the living and nonliving things in an area
Ecosystem
All the members of one species in a particular area
Population
Water, sunlight, oxygen temperature, soil, rocks
Examples of abiotic factors
Plants, Animals, Bacteria, Trees
Examples of biotic factors
The study of how living things interact with each other and their environment
Ecology
The place where an organism lives and that provides the things the organism needs
Habitat
Tropical rainforest - deserts -- fresh water lakes --- prairies.
Examples of habitats
Different populations that live together in a particular area thank you
Community
This is a group of organisms that are physically similar and can mate to produce offspring
Species
1. Predator and prey
2. Competetion
What are some types of relationships between organisms in an ecosystem?
Animal that hunts another animal for food
Predator
Animal that is eaten by another
Prey
Their populations will change in response to each other's population
How do predators and prey affect each other?
When 2 organisms or species have the same niche(role) in the community, they will compete for rescorces.

The "loser" will either have to leave, get another niche or die
Competition
State of "balance" in an ecosystem
Ecological equilibrum
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
Biosphere
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
Biome
An interaction in which one organism kills another for food.
predation
decomposer
something that breaks down dead matter
producer/ autotroph
a green plant that makes its own food through photosynthesis
omnivore
eats both plants and animals
carnivore
meat eater
herbivore
plant eater
embryo
baby plant
aquatic
water
terrestrial
land
macroinvertebrates
insect large enough to be seen with own eyes; no backbone; good indicator of stream health
dependent relationship
one way need; fish needs water; living needs nonliving
interdependent
two way need; fish needs elodea and elodea needs fish; two way need
acid
pH of less than 7
base
pH of greater than 7
neutral
pH of 7
vinegar
acid
ammonia
base
pollution
anything that harms the environment
biomass
plant material or animal waste
wind
turbines harness the movement of air and convert it to energy
hydropower
movement of water through a dam in a river that is convert to energy
geothermal
heat is harnessed from deep beneth earth surface
solar
the sun energy is collected and converted to energy
fossil fuel
a natural a nonrenewable fuel formed over millions of years
coal
a hard block solid fuel formed in areas of swaps
oil
a flammable yellow to block
natural gas
a gas usually found in the ground
nuclear power
atoms being split using uranium fission