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68 terms

UnitNine9.-ROMANTIC AND VICTORIAN POETRY

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aridity
excessively dry; lacking in interest
essence
that which makes something what it is; the essential element or feature
franchise
the right to vote
impetus
the driving force behind a cause or movement
intuition
the spontaneous understanding of something without using the reasoning process
meager
extremely small or scanty
myriad
having innumerable aspects
perceptive
insightful; having the ability to understand things not obviously understandable
phenomenon
a significant event
philosophy
the general beliefs, attitudes, and ideas of an individual, group, or movement
populace
the common people
radical
a person who advocates extreme changes
symmetrical
balanced; well proportioned
synthetic
putting parts together to make a whole
urbane
very polite and elegant
wane
to decrease or dwindle
Romanticism
refers to a comprehensive movement, or trend, in European thought and arts that began at the end of the eighteenth century.
The Victorian Age of England—named after
the queen who ruled from 1837 to 1901
specific characteristics
material progress; commercial prosperity; political, religious, and social reforms; scientific and mechanical developments; and conflicting views concerning scientific progress.
The major causes of the Romantic revolution are best realized by examining
the political, social, and economical revolutions that either preceded or coincided with it
simply defined as a reaction against neoclassical emphasis on reason, rules, and restraint—was more a state of mind than a literary movement.
Romanticism
The themes and ideas of the times caused
poetry to take certain forms
Individualism
American, French, and Industrial revolutions generated a genuine concern for the rights and dignity of the individual that became characteristic of the Romantic Movement in England
French Revolution
began in 1789 with the storming of the Bastille prison by mobs of French people—common people and peasants—who would no longer endure the economic and social hardships imposed on them by an aristocratic society.
deprivation
the condition of lacking or losing something that is needed or desired
didactic
intended to teach or instruct
imbue
to fill (the mind); to inspire
industrious
working conscientiously and consistently
luxuriate
to enjoy or indulge oneself
propriety
socially correct behavior
conventional
conforming to accepted ways of behavior; traditional
picturesque
enchanting; quaint
poet laureate
a British poet who is honored as the national poet
sensory
having to do with the five physical senses
sensuous
relating to or having an effect on the senses
Which of the following is the first generation of Romantic poets?
Wordsworth and Coleridge
Wordsworth's early poems do not yet reflect which of his qualities?
his disillusionment with the outcome of the French Revolution
Tintern Abbey
Wordsworth's best-known work.
-located in a valley at the edge of the Wye River near Southeastern Wales
- 1798 in Lyrical Ballads
composite
composed of various elements or parts
elusive
difficult to grasp, define, or understand.
omen
a sign or symbol for something.
Coleridge
-born in 1772,
-son of a clergyman
-preferred solitude and spent most of his time reading.
- met William Wordsworth in 1795.
-own poetry is varied
-best-known works are those of mystery and magic
-also wrote many blank verse poems and more traditional odes.
-Coleridge graduated from college in 1794
Wordsworth and Coleridge
both romantic poets and shared many beliefs and ideas, their poetry is significantly different
Wordsworth
- was a more disciplined man who generally followed his own prescription for writing poetry.
atypical
not normal; irregular.
defiant
boldly resisting; refusing to obey or conform
flamboyant
showy; attracting attention.
immune
protected; unable to be affected by.
inauspicious
without signs or promise of success or fortune.
masochistic
enjoying one's own suffering.
masochistic
enjoying one's own suffering.
panoramic
a broad view of changing scenes.
travelogue
a narrative about travel.
Byron
- born in 1788
-life began inauspiciously
- born with a deformed leg
- attended Trinity College where he began to write poetry for publication.
-From 1809 to 1811, Byron went on the tour of Europe and Asia that he wrote about in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.
-was an atypical Romantic
- Canto III was published in 1816.
The archetype of the Byronic hero was different because
the Byronic hero did not always consider himself innocent
staccato
abrupt; disconnected
tempestuous
violent; turbulent
Shelley
-born on August 4, 1792
-death in 1822. Shelley and a friend died when their boat sank.
-wrote his best poetry during his four years in Italy
-themes of his poetry mirror the themes of his life: love of freedom, idealism, spirit of protest, and love of beauty and goodness
-the idealist
-His greatest work, Prometheus Unbound
dogmatic
speaking or acting with real or assumed certainty and authority
empathy
the ability to feel with or experience another person's feelings
innate
inborn; inherent
Keats
-born on October 31, 1795, in London.
-8eight years old, his father died in a riding accident.
-14fourteen, his mother died of tuberculosis
-published his first volume at the age of twenty-two
-he gave up medicine for a career in literature
-Keats died in Rome.
-
ambivalence
condition of having conflicting feelings or attitudes about a person, thing, or situation
resplendent
shining brightly; splendid
Tennyson
-born in 1809 in northern England
-His father was a rector who was subject to fits of depression and violence.
-
innovate
To introduce new ideas or methods.
obscure
Difficult to understand.
Browning
-was born in 1812 of well-to-do parents
-married Elizabeth Barrett,
-started to write poetry when he was quite young
-His poetic ability developed slowly; consequently, it was not until 1842, when he was thirty, that Browning discovered a type of poetry that suited him
-continued to write until his death in 1889.
-Early in his poetic career, Browning was an admirer of Shelley
-first work, Pauline, was consciously modeled after Shelley.
-John Stuart Mill, one of the foremost critics and essayists in all of English literature, accused Browning of self-worship in the poem