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One way in which King Louis XVI of France and Czar Nicholas II of Russia are similar is that both
1. were executed by revolutionaries
2. were known as great military leaders
3. advocated religious reform
4. supported the emancipation of serfs
Reason: Both Louis XVI (the King of France in 1793) and Nicholas II (the Czar of Russia in 1917) were caught in the "terror phase" of the political revolutions that rocked their nations. Both were seen as a threat of return to absolute rule. Their deaths and the deaths of their family members insured that the revolution would not go backwards.
"Hungry Workers in Petrograd Demand Food"
" 'Peace, Land, and Bread' Promised to All"
"World War I Soldiers Join the People's Rebellion"
Which event is associated with these headlines?
1. Tiananmen Square protests
2. Soweto uprisings
3. Russian Revolution
4. Cuban Revolution
Reason: These are all events of the Russian Revolution of 1917. The discontent and hunger that Russians felt was exasperated by their failures during World War I. This set the scene for a radical leader, Lenin, to preach the communist platform and promise "Peace, Land and Bread"
The Bolshevik Party in 1917 gained the support of the peasant class because they promised them
1. "Peace, Land, and Bread"
2. "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
3. abolition of the secret police
4. democratic reforms in all levels of government
Reason: Food is one of our most important needs. For peasants in Russia, the promise of food, "Bread," and land upon which to grow more food was especially attractive. The promise of "Peace" was also attractive, as Russia was involved in a devastating war, World War I. Thus, Lenin's promise of "Peace, Bread and Land" offered security to the peasants.
"...The replacement of the bourgeois by the proletarian state is impossible without a violent revolution. The abolition of the proletarian state, i.e., of all states, is only possible through 'withering away.'..."
— V. I. Lenin, State and Revolution, 1917
This quotation is associated with the principles of
Reason : Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the 1917 communist revolution in Russia. As head of the Bolshevik Party, he believed that a successful revolution needed an elite group to lead the movement.
The French Revolution (1789) and the Russian Bolshevik Revolution (1917) were similar because following both revolutions
1. foreign armies invaded and restored the old rulers to power
2. governments protected individual rights
3. the role of religion was emphasized
4. dictators came to power promising an improved society
Reason: In both of these revolutions, dictators, namely Napoleon I and Lenin, gained control in an effort to improve and unify society.
A study of the causes of the American, French, and Russian Revolutions indicates that revolutions usually occur because the
1. society has become dependent on commerce and trade
2. society has a lower standard of living than the societies around it
3. existing government has been resistant to change
4. lower classes have strong leaders
Reason: American colonists were discontent with Great Britain's policies. French citizens were displeased with Louis XVI's economic problems and taxing. The Bolsheviks and peasants grew increasingly dissatisfied with the Czar's lack of reforms.
Which term best describes the political system in Russia before the 20th century?
1. constitutional republic
2. absolute monarchy
3. parliamentary democracy
4. military dictatorship
Reason: Before the Russian Revolution, Russia's political system was an absolute monarchy. It consisted of a series of Czars who inherited the throne from one generation of a family to another.
During the Industrial Revolution, which development resulted from the other three?
1. Factory conditions affected people's health.
2. Labor unions were formed.
3. Unskilled laborers received low wages.
4. Machinery replaced workers.
Reason: It was the bad working conditions, low pay and fear of unemployment that spurred development of labor unions. These organizations of workers proceeded to bargain with employers for improvements in working conditions.
- Irregular coastline
- Abundant mineral resources
- Large labor force
- Investment capital
Which country had these characteristics and used them to industrialize in the 1700s?
3. Great Britain
Reason: England (Great Britain) was fortunate to have all the prerequisites to foster a factory system of production. It had the raw materials, the power source, labor and consumers—all are necessary for an Industrial Revolution. The Agricultural Revolution that preceded the Industrial Revolution made it possible to free up labor.
Urbanization in developing nations today is similar to urbanization in 19th-century England because in both cases
1. many people moved to rural areas
2. governments developed policies of forced migration
3. ties to extended families increased
4. many farm workers went to cities to look for jobs
Reason: Urbanization means the growth of cities. In both the early stages of the Industrial Revolution and in today's world, people move to cities in search of employment.
Increased agricultural production in England in the late 1700s contributed directly to
1. the development of a worldwide communications network
2. the introduction of manorialism
3. a decrease in the power of the monarch
4. an increase in life expectancy
Reason: The increase in the food supply led to improved nutrition. The improved nutrition meant healthy people and, thus an increased life expectancy.
Which action taken by the Meiji government encouraged industrialization in 19th-century Japan?
1. building a modern transportation system
2. limiting the number of ports open to foreign trade
3. forcing families to settle on collective farms
4. establishing a system of trade guilds
Reason: It was the modern system of transportation in Japan that moved people and resources within the nation. Also, this modernization carried Japan's people and its goods throughout the world.
Base your answer to this question on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.
"...The factory owners did not have the power to compel anybody to take a factory job. They could only hire people who were ready to work for the wages offered to them. Low as these wage rates were, they were nonetheless much more than these paupers could earn in any other field open to them. It is a distortion of facts to say that the factories carried off the housewives from the nurseries and the kitchens and the children from their play. These women had nothing to cook with and [nothing] to feed their children. These children were destitute [poor] and starving. Their only refuge was the factory. It saved them, in the strict sense of the term, from death by starvation. ..."
— Ludwig von Mises, Human Action, A Treatise on Economics, Yale University Press
Which statement summarizes the theme of this passage?
1. Factory owners created increased hardships.
2. Factory owners preferred to use child laborers.
3. The factory system allowed people to earn money.
4. The factory system created new social classes.
Reason: This is certainly a different point of view than we usually receive regarding workers in the early days of the Industrial Revolution. The writer takes the position that these jobs gave the people a place to work and that people could chose to work or not. What would Karl Marx have said about this quotation?
In England, which circumstance was a result of the other three?
1. availability of labor
2. abundance of coal and iron
3. waterpower from many rivers
4. start of the Industrial Revolution
Reason: England was able to industrialize because it had raw materials, natural resources, markets for finished goods and available workers.
In the years following the Meiji Restoration in Japan and the unification of Germany in the 19th century, both nations experienced
1. an increase in military production and strengthened military
2. a reduction in tensions with neighboring nations
3. a restructuring of government that included popularly elected monarchs
4. a decrease in the reliance on industrialization and trade
Reason: Both the Meiji and the Germans thought of their newly awakened and unified nations as needing to "catch-up" with the rest of the world. This competitive spirit to expand led to an increase in military efforts.
The needs of the Industrial Revolution in 19th century Europe greatly contributed to the
1. growth of overseas empires
2. beginning of the triangular trade
3. development of international peacekeeping organizations
4. promotion of political and economic equality in Asia and Africa
Reason: Overseas empires were very important to industrial countries. The colonies in Latin American, Africa and Asia supplied the raw materials and became the buyers of finished products.
Base your answer on the quotations and on your knowledge of social studies.
"The Humble ADDRESS and PETITION of Thousands, who labor in the Cloth Manufactory. SHEWETH, That the Scribbling-Machines have thrown thousands of your petitioners out of employ, whereby they are brought into great distress, and are not able to procure a maintenance for their families, and deprived them of the opportunity of bringing up their children to labour: We have therefore to request, that prejudice and self-interest may be laid aside, and that you may pay that attention to the following facts, which the nature of the case requires...."
- Leeds Woollen Workers Petition, 1786
"In the Manufacture of Woollens, the Scribbling Mill, the Spinning Frame, and the Fly Shuttle, have reduced manual Labour nearly One third, and each of them at its - first Introduction carried an Alarm to the Work People, yet each has contributed to advance the Wages and to increase the Trade, so that if an Attempt was now made to deprive us of the Use of them, there is no Doubt, but every Person engaged in the Business, would exert himself to defend them...."
- Letter from Leeds Cloth Merchants, 1791
Quotation 1 describes the situation in terms of
1. worker-management cooperation
2. technological unemployment
3. opportunities for unionism
4. positive change
Reason: The purpose of the workers' petition is to clarify the disadvantages felt by laborers who have lost their jobs due to the introduction of machines in the woolen industry. This is similar to the situation today when computers and robots often assemble goods in factories.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, Europeans improved roads and bridges and built railroads in their colonies primarily to
1. provide jobs for the colonists
2. obtain raw materials needed for industrialization
3. impress the colonists with their technological knowledge
4. help missionaries spread Christianity
Reason click to collapse contents
Industrial development in Europe depended upon a steady source of raw materials. By building
transportation routes throughout colonial areas, these raw materials were more easily obtainable.
The primary reason that the Japanese policy of near-isolation ended in 1853-54 was that Japan
1. needed additional territory as an outlet for its surplus population
2. needed European markets for its manufactured goods
3. became involved in a war with China
4. was pressured by United States naval power to open its ports
Reason: The Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) allowed US ships to enter Japan and begin trading with her. Perry threatened to use naval force if Japan did not open its ports to trade.
Which has been a major change resulting from the industrialization of Western Europe?
1. increased social mobility
2. increased political power for the nobility
3. shrinking of the influence of the middle class
4. shift in wealth from northern to southern European nations
Reason: Industrialization brought about new economic classes and capitalism enabled individuals to move from one class to another.
Which generally occurs as a nation moves from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy?
1. There is a greater need for education and training.
2. Larger families are needed to meet economic and social goals.
3. The number of people at the poverty level increases sharply.
4. There is a renewed emphasis on traditional values.
Reason: As industry enters a nation, there is a disruption on the traditional methods of doing things. Workers will be needed to operate new machinery. This calls for education and training.
Eighteenth-century Russia and nineteenth-century Japan were similar in that both countries
1. began the process of modernization after a long period of isolation
2. developed democratic governments after years under absolute monarchies
3. refused to accept Western technological ideas
4. adopted socialist economic systems after capitalism had failed
Peter the Great wanted Russia to become more westernized. An example was his building of St. Petersburg (the "window to the west"). The Meiji Restoration witnessed Japan's transition from a feudal state to a modern global power.
Which situation is a long-term effect of the Industrial Revolution?
1. The nations of the world have become more interdependent.
2. Many nations have adopted policies of isolationism.
3. Industrialization has been limited to western European nations.
4. Agricultural production has decreased.
Reason: Nations depend more on one another in our post-industrial society. For example, the US ships grain to Russia, and Japan imports oil from the Middle East.
One way in which Otto von Bismarck and Camillo Cavour are similar is that both leaders
1. followed a policy of isolationism
2. adopted papal policies
3. led an African independence movement
4. promoted unification to form a new nation-state
Reason: Cavour, along with Garibaldi and Mazzini, helped to unite the Italian nation. Bismarck, with his "blood and iron" policy, united Germany. Their actions are great examples of the nationalistic movements of the mid-late 19th century.
During the late 19th century, Zionism focused on
1. securing safe working conditions for urban factory workers
2. acquiring a homeland for displaced Jewish people
3. establishing colonies in southern Africa
4. developing a strict set of laws based on equality
Reason: As nationalism grew in Europe during the late 19th century, Jewish people were often shunned (treated as outcasts). In addition, Jews began to feel their own nationalism and desired a homeland of their own. Zionism, led by Theodor Herzl, was a movement to create and support a Jewish state in Palestine, considered the ancient homeland of the Jews.
-Appointment of Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor
- Austro-Prussian War, 1866
- Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871
These events led directly to
1. the unification of Germany
2. foreign rule in Italy
3. the rebellion of the Sepoys
4. an alliance between Serbs and Russians
Many critics believe that the policy of the British government during the Irish Famine
1. contributed to food shortages
2. ignored military concerns
3. discouraged emigration
4. led directly to civil war
Reason: Needing grain to feed its city-folk who worked in the early industrial plants, the English government took grain from Ireland to meet this need. When blight struck the potato crop in Ireland, there was no food left for the Irish who had relied on the potato as their staple food supply. With no potatoes available and all the grains being shipped to England, millions of Irish died from starvation.
"Not by democracy or liberal standards will our goal be achieved but by blood and iron. Then we will be successful, no nation is born without the traumatic experience of war."
— Otto von Bismarck
This statement was used to justify a policy of
Reason: Militarism is the build of up armies and navies. In addition to the build up of weaponry, there is also a national pride attached to their development. During 1850-1880, Bismarck sought to unify the German states under Prussian rule. He fought Denmark, Austria and France to achieve this unification.
The Andes Mountains and the Amazon River basin affected Simón Bolívar's efforts to bring about
1. economic imperialism
2. political unification
3. religious solidarity
4. technological improvements
Reason: Bolivar's dream of one united nation on the South American continent was thwarted (stopped) by geography. The Andes Mountains and the Amazon Basin provided geographic obstacles that were impossible to surmount in the 1800s.
What was one effect of the Latin American revolutions of the 19th century?
1. Democracy became the dominant political system in Latin America.
2. European colonialism replaced the independent governments of Latin America.
3. Many Latin American countries achieved independence.
4. Countries in Latin America deported most people with European ancestry.
Reason: With the inspiration of the American and French Revolutions of the late 1700s, Latin American colonies sought independence from their European mother countries. Men like Simon Bolivar, Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jose de San Martin led popular movements to overthrow European rule.
Base your answer to the question on the quotation below and on your knowledge of social studies:
...Finally, gather together all that we have said, so great and so august [important], about royal authority. You have seen a great nation united under one man: you have seen his sacred power, paternal and absolute: you have seen that secret reason which directs the body politic, enclosed in one head: you have seen the image of God in kings, and you will have the idea of majesty of kingship.
God is holiness itself, goodness itself, power itself, reason itself. In these things consists the divine majesty. In their reflection consists the majesty of the prince....
— Jacques-Benigne Bossuet
If a student was preparing a debate in which she needed to oppose Boussuet's philosophy of government, which of the following choices would offer the best support for her argument against Boussuet?
1. John Locke
2. Thomas Hobbes
3. Niccolo Machiavelli
4. Qin Shi Huang
Reason: John Locke was one of the leading proponents for democratic government, where power stems from the people (consent of the governed) and NOT from a hereditary monarch. Since Boussuet's quote is in favor of a single king, a student who opposes him would want to argue in favor of democratic government.
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" and "Peace, Land, and Bread" are slogans used by revolutionaries to represent
1. frameworks for economic stability
2. political and economic ideals
3. plans for maintaining the social hierarchy
4. methods of political reform
Reason: Both slogans were used to push for change in politics and economics. "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" was the slogan for the French Revolution (1789). "Peace, Land, and Bread" was the slogan for the communist Russian Revolution (1917).
In the late 1700s, which situation in France is considered a cause of the other three?
1. meeting of the Estates General
2. unfair policies of taxation
3. execution of the king
4. storming of the Bastille
Reason: At the root of the French Revolution was inequality. The unfair policies of taxation were especially offensive. The Third Estate (non-noble and non-clergy), who made up 97% of the population, paid most of the taxes and lacked any real say in government.
Which event is most closely associated with the French Revolution?
1. Council of Trent
2. Thirty Years' War
3. Reign of Terror
4. Paris Peace Conference
Reason: The Reign of Terror was the radical phase of the French Revolution. Lead by Maximilian Robespierre, the Reign of Terror caused the death of over 40,000 French people who did not fit the definition of true revolutionaries.
Which individual is correctly paired with an individual who further developed his ideas?
1. Pope Urban II → Martin Luther
2. Nicolaus Copernicus → Galileo Galilei
3. Hernando Cortez → Simón Bolívar
4. Louis XVI → Maximilien Robespierre
Reason: Galileo built on Copernicus's observations. Both men believed in the heliocentric (sun-centered universe) theory. With the use of a telescope, Galileo was able to further Copernicus's thesis. Both men met the wrath of the Catholic Church which insisted on the geocentric (earth-centered universe) theory.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke both agreed that a government should be based on the
1. separation of nationalities
2. religious values of the people
3. equal distribution of wealth
4. consent of the governed
Reason For both of these Enlightenment writers, man's freedom of choice was paramount. To them, government existed to serve the people and not for the people to serve the government.
One way in which Robespierre and Napoleon are similar is that they both
1. played an important role at the Congress of Vienna
2. increased their power during the French Revolution
3. were executed for treason by French monarchs
4. led armies against the Haitians
Reason: Both of these men led France after the French Revolution started in 1789. Robespierre led France during the Reign of Terror. During his reign, over 40,000 people were killed because they were thought to be disloyal to revolution's principles. Napoleon brought order to France following the Revolution and carried on an imperialist war campaign throughout Europe (1800-1814).
One contribution that John Locke made to Enlightenment philosophy was the idea that
1. absolute monarchies should continue
2. the punishment should fit the crime
3. individual rights should be denied
4. governments should be based on the consent of the people
Reason: Locke is one of the writers of the Enlightenment. He promoted the idea that governments exist to protect the rights of the people. If a government fails to do this, then the people have the right to change the government. Locke's ideas were incorporated into the American Declaration of Independence.
Which set of historical periods in European history is in the correct chronological order?
A. Medieval Europe
B. Italian Renaissance
C. Golden Age of Greece
1. C → A → B → D
2. A → B → D → C
3. C → B → D → A
4. B → A → C → D
Reason: The approximate dates for these historical periods are:
Ancient Greece (750-500 BC /BCE)
Medieval Europe (500-1350 AD/CE)
Italian Renaissance (1350-1500 AD/CE)
Enlightenment (1650-1750 AD/CE)
"If man in the state of nature is free, if he is absolute lord of his own person and possessions, why will he give up his freedom? Why will he put himself under the control of any person or institution? The obvious answer is that rights in the state of nature are constantly exposed to the attack of others. Since every man is equal and since most men do not concern themselves with equity and justice, the enjoyment of rights in the state of nature is unsafe and insecure. Hence each man joins in society with others to preserve his life, liberty, and property."
— John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, 1690
This statement provides support for the
1. elimination of laissez-faire capitalism
2. formation of government based on a social contract
3. continuation of absolute monarchy
4. rejection of the natural rights philosophy
Reason: John Locke was one of the first Enlightenment writers (philosophes). Seeing all men as equal in power and wants, he believed people will accept a deal (a contract or agreement) with other people in an effort to protect life and property. Furthermore if the dealer (a government) fails to provide these needs, Locke believed that the agreement could be broken. Thus, governments may be changed.
Which statement is a valid generalization about the immediate results of the French Revolution of 1789?
1. The Roman Catholic Church increased its power and wealth.
2. The Revolution achieved its goal of establishing peace, democracy, and justice for all.
3. The Revolution had little impact outside France.
4. The French middle class gained more power
Reason: The French middle class or bourgeoisie had the most to gain by overthrowing the monarchy. They resented the privileges enjoyed by the nobles. The peasantry were burdened by heavy taxes paying for these privileges. The removal of this burden would solve many of their problems.
The theory of laissez-faire capitalism advocates
1. government control of the economy
2. noninvolvement of the government in the economy
3. government regulation of big business
4. government sponsorship of labor unions
Reason: During the Age of Enlightenment, Frenchmen called physiocrats believed that the best way to run an economy was for government to leave private businessmen alone; to stay out of their affairs. This is called laissez-faire economic policy.
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