114 terms

Bio Test 2

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Terms in this set (...)

Nucleus
Genetic info
Ribosomes
Makes protein
rough er
makes protein and processing
Golgi Apparatus
protein processing
Smooth ER
makes lipids
Lysosomes
Digestion and REcycling
Peroxisomes (detox Center)
Oxidation of fatty acids, ethanol and other components center for oxidation reactions
Vacuoles
Coloration, storage of oils, carbohydrates, water, toxins
Mitochondria
makes ATP
Chloroplasts
Production of ATP and sugars via protein synthesis
Cytoskeleton
structural support
Plasma Membrane
selective permeability means that it can determine what can and cant get through
cell wall
Protection, Structural Support
How many NADH are produced from oxidization of 1 Pyruvate
4
How many NADH are produced from oxidization of 1 glucose
10
Final Tally ATP including glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain.
29
How many Net ATP production of Citric Acid Cycle
2
How many Net ATP production in pyruvate processing
0
How many Net ATP are produced i glycolysis
2
Active Transport
Concentration of lactose inside the cell is more than concentration outside the cell.... transport used to move into the cell
What is the Net amount of an ion across a membrane by passive diffusion through a membrane channel
there is less concentration of ions on the side of the membrane channel
Transporter
Membrane protein to move glucose across membrane of more concentration to less concentration
What distinguishes facilitated diffusion from simple diffusion
Membrane proteins help move molecules across the membrane
Photosystem II
Reaction uses H20 and produces O2
WhatReactions that ensure Calvin Cycle can make continuous supply of glucose
Regeneration of RuBP
What is the relationship between light dependent and light independent reactions of photosynthesis
The light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH then used by the light independent reactions
What is the Primary Product of Photosystem I
NADPH
What is the biological significance of the light independent reactions of photosynthesis
Convert Carbon Dioxide to Sugar
What is not a net output from glycolysis of 1 glucose
2FADH2
What is the enzyme that mediates the major regulatory step in glycolysis
Phosphofructokinase
How much ATP created from one glucose during glycolysis
2 ATP
... 4 AT{ are generated but 2ATP were used in steps 1 and 3
4-2=2ATP
How many NADH/Glucose are made during glycolysis
2..... one for each three carbon molecules oxidized
How is oxygen used in cellular Respiration
final electron acceptor and becomes reduced
What electron transport chain drives ATP production
ATP Synthase
What is the purpose of the citric acid cycle
Reduce NAD+
What happens in the Mitochondria
the citric acid cycle, and electron transport chain
What stage of Glucose metabolism produces most ATP
Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis
What is true about the electron transport chain
1.NADH+FADH2 donate their electrons to the chain...
2.oxygen last acceptor in cellular respiration
3.losses energy when being moved down chain
Into which molecule are the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration
Carbon Dioxide
What does the term hydrophilic mean when it is translated literally
water loving
If a solution surrounding a cell is hypotonic relative to the inside of the cell how will water move
It will move into the cell via osmosis
If a solution surrounding a cell is hypertonic relative to the inside of the cell how will water move
It will move out of the cell via osmosis
When does a concentration gradient exist
When solute concentrations differ on the two sides of a membrane
what is Hypotonic
Mor water inside the cell
what is Hypertonic
More water on the outside of the cell
what is Isotonic
Equal inside and out of the cell
Which of the following must be true for osmosis to occur
Solutions with different concentrations of solutes must be separated by a selectively permeable membrane
Why are the lipid bilayers in cells called "Selectively permeable"
They are permeable to some substances but not others
Which of the following best describes the nuclear envelope
It is continuous with the endomembrane system
Why is "Receptro-mediated endocytosis" ab aoorioruate tern
It starts when extracellular molecules bind to receptors
which of the following is not true of secreted proteins
They are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the ER
Molecular zip codes direct molecules to particular destinations in the cell. how are these signals read
they bind to receptor proteins
what does a motor protein do
Changes shape in a way that moves another cell structure
Compare and contrast the structure of a plant cell, animal cell, and prokaryotic cell. which features are common to all cells. which are just specific to just that cell
...
When does feedback inhibition occur
when an enzyme that is active early in a metabolic pathway is inhibited by a product of the pathway
Where does the citric acid cycle occur in eukaryotes
in the matrix of mitochondria
what does the chemiosmotic hypothesis claim
electron transport chains generate ATP indirectly by the creation of proton-motive force
what is the function of the reactions in a fermentation pathway
to generate NAD+ from NADH so glycolysis can continue
when do cells switch from cellular respiration to fermentation
when electron acceptors required by the ETC are not available
Why are NADH and FADH2 said to have "reducing Power"
they donate electrons to components of the ETC, reducing those components
What is resonance
Transfer of energy among pigment molecules
why is chlorohyll green
it absorbs wavelengths in the blue adn red parts of the visible spectrum
what does it mean to say that CO2 becomes fixed
It becomes bonded to an organic compound
what do the light-capturing reactions of Photosynthesis Produce
Sucrose or starch
Why do the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll and the action spectrum for photosynthesis coincide
energy from wavelengths absorbed by carotenoids is passed on to chlorophyll
what happens when an excited electron is passed to an electron acceptor in a photosystem
the chemical energy in the excited electron is released as heat
1. What job does the electron transport chain accomplish in order to drive the formation of ATP?
The proteins in the electron transport chain pump protons from the matrix of the mitochondria to the intermembrane space, thus establishing an electrochemical gradient.
2. Which statement most accurately explains why cholesterol and phospholipids are amphipathic but fats are not?
Cholesterol and phospholipids contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions; fats are primarily hydrophobic.
3. Which statement most accurately explains why ATP hydrolysis is highly exergonic?
There is a large drop in potential energy because charge repulsion is reduced, accompanied by a large increase in entropy.
4. The small intestine is the site of digestion and absorption of nutrients. A single layer of epithelial cells lines the small intestine. In the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine), these epithelial cells secrete large quantities of digestive enzymes into the digestive tract. Which of the following features would you expect to find in these epithelial cells?
They would contain large quantities of rough endoplasmic reticulum.
5. Which answer best explains why it is accurate to call the Calvin cycle a "cycle"?
Regenerates a substrate of the first reaction. (RuBP)
6. ________is the three-carbon sugar that is produced as an end product of glycolysis.
Pyruvate
7. Which statement best describes the electrochemical gradient for chloride ions in the figure, assuming the chloride concentrations are equal on both sides of the membrane?
It favors the movement of chloride ions from the inside to the outside of the cell.
8. During the Calvin cycle, carbon dioxide is _____, in order to drive the formation of sugars.
Reduced
9. A prokaryotic cell is distinct from a eukaryotic cell because a prokaryotic cell lacks _____.
a membrane-bound nucleus
10. Decreasing the saturation of the fatty acid chains on a particular type of phospholipid would result in the formation of _____.
more fluid bilayers
11. What would happen to NADH levels in a cell in the first few seconds after a drug has poisoned the enzyme that converts acetyl CoA to citrate?
NADH levels would decrease.
12. Which of the following statements is correct concerning the reaction shown in the figure below?
The carbon atoms in glucose are oxidized; the oxygen atoms in the oxygen molecule (O2) are reduced.
13. The reactions of pyruvate processing, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain occur within the _____ in the cell.
Mitochondria
14. The eukaryotic cell overcomes the problem of dangerous free radicals by _____.
using peroxisomes to detoxify them
15. For eukaryotic cells, which answer best describes the function of the indicated component?
peroxisome: detox center
16. What central theme of biology helps explain why various cells can look so different from each other?
Cells correlate structure with function.
17. Why have biologists stopped using the once-common phrase "light-independent reactions" to describe the Calvin cycle?
Although its reactions are not triggered directly by light, they depend on the products of light-capturing reactions
18. The high-energy electron carrier that is reduced during glycolysis, pyruvate processing, and the citric acid cycle, and which carries electrons to the electron transport system, is _____.
NADH
19. When a photon of light is absorbed by a pigment molecule, electrons in the molecule _____.
Enter the excited state
20. When one molecule gains an electron from another, the molecule that received the electron has been _____.
Reduced
21. Plant leaves contain openings called _____, which allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the leaf tissue.
Stomata
22. How are proteins transported throughout the endomembrane system?
The protein contains a molecular zip code that allows the protein to be shipped to the correct cellular compartment.
23. The physical property characteristic that distinguishes lipids from most other cellular macromolecules is that _____.
lipids are largely hydrophobic
24. The movement of molecules through a plasma membrane channel protein is always _____.
down the molecule's concentration gradient
25. The plasma membranes of all known cells are largely composed of what class of macromolecules?
Lipids
26. For prokaryotic cells, which statement is correct concerning how the structure of a particular cell component correlates with its function?
The cell wall consists of cross-linked polymers such as peptidoglycan, which protect the cell and give it shape and rigidity.
27. In plant cells, why are toxins such as nicotine, cocaine, and caffeine found in vacuoles instead of the cytosol?
Toxins in vacuoles are sequestered from the rest of the cell, where they could do harm.
28. What molecule is produced in the citric acid cycle as a by-product of glucose oxidation and is subsequently released into the bloodstream and carried to the lungs, where it is removed from the body?
Carbon Dioxide
29. In cells, membrane proteins are responsible for the passage of substances that can't cross the membrane on their own. Channels and transporters are involved in facilitated diffusion. Pumps are involved in active transport. In terms of their properties or functions, which statement most accurately describes how these three types of membrane proteins compare?
Among the three types, only pumps can concentrate substances on one side of the membrane.
30. Which statement best explains the effect on membrane permeability of cholesterol and/or temperature?
Adding cholesterol reduces permeability because its steroid rings increase the density of the hydrophobic membrane interior
31. Which of the following statements is true?
Cells are dynamic, highly integrated structures
32. At the end of cellular respiration, protons flow through a protein called _____,.which drives the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
ATP synthase
33. What important molecule that is needed for cellular respiration is released when water is split in the light reactions of photosynthesis?
Oxygen
34. Molecules move into and out of the nucleus through the _____.
nuclear pore complexes
35. Which of the following eukaryotic organelles are found only in algal and plant cells?
Chloroplasts
36. Which answer best explains why organisms that have an ETC as well as fermentation pathways almost never ferment pyruvate if the electron acceptor required by the ETC is available?
Fermentation is extremely inefficient in terms of the number of ATP molecules produced for each molecule of glucose metabolized.
37. A "mystery molecule" was isolated in a laboratory and scientists found that the molecule readily crossed artificial membranes. Which of the following molecules can be ruled out as the "mystery molecule"?
Cl-
38. Which statement is most accurate concerning how photosystem II (PS II) compares to the electron transport chain (ETC) of mitochondria?
In both systems, ATP is produced by chemiosmosis.
39. Which answer best summarizes what the consequences would be if the regulatory site had a much higher affinity for ATP than the active site did?
Glucose oxidation would be inhibited even if ATP were scarce in the cell.
40. Why can the rate of photosynthesis be estimated by measuring the rate of oxygen production in chloroplasts?
Oxygen is produced by "splitting" water in the PS II complex.
41. When ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP and inorganic phosphate,_________
a large amount of energy is released
42. Which statement most accurately describes what will happen to endomembrane system products if experimental cells are treated with drugs that inhibit formation of microtubules?
They will still enter the ER but transport to their destinations will be impaired.
43. Predict what will happen after addition of a new solute to the solution on the left side if the new solute (1) crosses the membrane readily or (2) is i
ncapable of crossing the membrane
(1) New solute will diffuse from left to right to establish equilibrium; (2) water level on the right will fall.
44. Both photosystem I and photosystem II employ the use of a(n) _____, which drives the formation of ATP and NADPH.
Electron transport chain
45. The eukaryotic cell overcomes the problem of its larger size by _____.
compartmentalizing cellular functions into various organelles
46. The nucleus
contains the DNA in chromosomes.
47. Which of the following organelles are required for processing secreted proteins?
Golgi Ap
48. The ribosome functions in the synthesis of______
Proteins