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--- reactions break down complex organic compounds, providing energy


--- reactions synthesize complex molecules from small molecules, requiring energy


Exchange of energy requires use of --- molecules


a decrease in the energy content of a molecule: electrons are lost, plus H+


the increase in the energy content of a molecule: electrons gained, plus H+

Electron Transport Chain

-Series of integral membrane proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane capable of oxidation/reduction
-Each electron carrier can accept and donate electrons
-Small amounts of energy released in small steps. This energy used to form ATP by chemiosmosis


Electron Transport Chain:
--- is the final electron acceptor - requried step for this process to occur


Electron Transport Chain:
--- is transported out of matrix to be used by the cell


-Small amounts of energy released as electrons are passed along inner membrane
-This energy is used to pump H+ ions from matrix across inner mitochondrial membrane against their gradient
-ATP synthesis occurs as H+ diffuses through a special H+ channel in inner membrane

Cellular Respiration

Summary of ---:
In the presence of O2, Glucose is broken down into CO2 + H2O + energy used to form ATP
-ATP is transported out of the mitochondria to be used by the cell


Glucose Metabolism:
Break down of glucose - glucoseto pyruvate/lactate


Glucose Metabolism: Break down of glycogen- glycogen to glucose


Glucose Metabolism: formation of glycogen - glucose to glycogen


Glucose Metabolism: (formation of new glucose) - other substrates to glucose


Transport of --- by Lipoproteins
-Most Lipids are nonpolar and must be combined with protein to be transported in blood
-Lipoproteins are spheres containing hundreds of molecules
-Lipoproteins are categorized by function and density
-4 Major classes of lipoproteins


Classes of Lipoproteins: (2% protein, 85% TG)
-Form in intestinal epithelial cells to transport dietary fats to adipose cells


Classes of Lipoproteins: (10% protein, 50% TG)
-Fom in hepatocytes to transport triglycerides to adipose cells


Classes of Lipoproteins: (25% protein, 50% Chol.) - bad cholesterol
-Carry blood cholesterol to body cells


Classes of Lipoproteins: (40% protein, 20% Chol.) -good cholesterol
-carry cholesterol from cells to liver for elimination


Fate of Lipids:
--- to produce ATP


Fate of Lipids:
Excess stored in adipose tissue or ---


Fate of Lipids: Synthesize structural or other important molecules
--- of plasma membranes


Fate of Lipids: Synthesize structural or other important molecules
--- that transport cholesterol


Fate of Lipids: Synthesize structural or other important molecules
--- for blood clotting

myelin sheaths

Fate of Lipids: Synthesize structural or other important molecules
--- to speed up nerve conduction


Fate of Lipids: Synthesize structural or other important molecules
--- used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones


---: Triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids within liver or adipose cells in the presence of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol

beta oxidation

Fatty acids undergo --- in mitochondria to produce Acetyl CoA and lots of ATP


--- occurs in liver cells; ketone bodies are used by heart muscle & kidney cortex for ATP production


---: triglycerides are synthesized from amino acids or glucose within liver or adipose cells in the presence of insulin


Fate of Proteins:
Proteins are broken down into amino acids, which are transported to the ---


Amino acids may be: --- to enter Krebs Cycle


Amino acids may be: donate amino group to form new amino acids (---)


Amino acids may be: used to synthesize new --- throughout the body

no storage

Fate of Proteins: excess amino acids may be converted into glucose or triglycerides (---)


Fate of Proteins:
--- of AA into body cells is stimulated by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin

absorptive state

Metabolism during ---:
-Represents the time after a meal when nutrients enter the blood and need to be stored
-Hepatic portal system for glucose and amino acids - go to liver first
-Lacteals for dietary fats

Absorptive State

--- Summary;
-Storage of excess fuels occurs in hepatocytes, adipocyes, skeletal muscle
-Most glucose entering liver cells is converted to glycogen (10%) or triglycerides (40%)
-Dietary lipids are stored in adipose tissue
-Amino acids are deaminated to enter Krebs cycle or are converted to glucose or fatty acids
-Amino Acids not taken up by hepatocytes are used by other cells for synthesis of proteins

Postabsorptive State

Metabolism during ---:
-4 hours after a meal when absorption of all nutrients is complete (similar to starvation)
-Maintaining normal blood glucose level (70-110 mg/dl of blood) is major challenge --> goal is to put glucose back into the blood or use alternative fuel sources

Postabsorptive State

--- Summary:
Glucose enters blood from the liver
-glycerol from adipose tissue
-amino acids and lactic acid from muscle
-Alternative fuel sources are:
-Fatty acids from adipose fed into Krebs as Acetyl CoA for most cells
-oxidation of ketone bodies by heart and kidney

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