AP Biology Big Idea 2
Terms in this set (76)
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
process by which a single species or small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways; rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms
REQUIRES ENERGY. chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined to build more complex molecules.
any of several kinds of reproduction without fertilization, The ability of some plant species to reproduce asexually through seeds without fertilization by a male gamete.
reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
An enzyme complex in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion and the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that catalyzes the formation of ATP.
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
of or relating to living organisms
reproduction of some unicellular organisms (such as yeasts) by growth and specialization followed by the separation by constriction of a part of the parent
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
an organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
A kind of allosteric regulation whereby a shape change in one subunit of a protein caused by substrate binding is transmitted to all the others, facilitating binding of subsequent substrate molecules.
behavior that allows males and females of the same species to recognize each other and prepare to mate
coloring that conceals or disguises an animal's shape
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants., hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles
Path of electron flow during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis in which photosystem I transfers excited electrons back to the electron transport chain of photosystem II, rather than to NADP+. Also called cyclic electron flow.
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
when two or more species sharing a common ancestor become more different over time
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity equal to the internal energy of a system plus the product of its volume and pressure
(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen
A class of proteins that reside next to the intracellular portion of a receptor and that are activated when the receptor binds an appropriate ligand on the extracellular surface.
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
the ability of a living thing to keep conditions inside its body constant
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
having a solute concentration equal to that of another solution
in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy
membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
when a changing in some condition triggers a response that counteracts the changed condition (warmer earth - more ocean evaporation - more stratus clouds - less sunlight reaches the ground - therefore cooler Earth)
net primary productivity
The gross primary productivity minus the energy used by the producers for cellular respiration; represents the storage of chemical energy in an ecosystem available to consumers.
The set of light-dependent reactions of the two plant photosystems, in which excited electrons are shuttled between the two photosystems producing a proton gradient that is used for the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP. The electrons are used to reduce NADP to NADPH. Lost electrons are replaced by the oxidation of water producing O2.
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
An organism that allows its internal concentration of salts to change in order to match the external concentration of salts in the surrounding water
An organism that regulates its internal concentration of salts
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion, The movement of materials through a cell membrane WITHOUT USING energy
odorless chemicals that serve as social signals to members of one's species
Catastrophic disturbances that can devastate biological communities.
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
when a change in some condition triggers a response that intensifies the changing condition (warmer Earth - snow melts - less sunlight is reflected & more is absorbed, therefore warmer earth)
the series of changes that occur in an area where no soil or organisms exist
organisms that make their own food
(biology) growth anew of lost tissue or destroyed parts or organs
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
rough endoplasmic reticulum
System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
the series of changes that occur after a disturbance of an existing ecosystem
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
no ribosomes are found on surface; contains collection of enzymes that perform special tasks that include the synthesis of membrane lipids and detoxification; the liver contains a lot of smooth er
the evolution of a biological species
proteins that switch on genes by binding to DNA and helping the RNA polymerase to bind
The hierarchical levels of the food chain through which energy flows from primary producers to primary consumers, secondary consumers and so on.
Type of reproduction in which new plants grow from vegetative parts such as roots, stems, and leaves