AP Biology Big Idea 3
Terms in this set (62)
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
a type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
an abnormality involving a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number (one chromosome set is incomplete)
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
Pinched-spot between two cells in mitosis, specifically telephase/cytokinesis. This exists only for animals (not plants).
Inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct traits of both alleles
a process in which two organisms exchange genetic material
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis, exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments
The addition of methyl groups (—CH3) to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as a long-term control of gene expression.
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission
a phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited
a region of DNA that is uncoiled and undergoing active transcription into RNA
genetic makeup of an organism
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
Having only a single copy of a gene instead of the customary two copies.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compacted during interphase and is generally not transcribed
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structured, and that pair during meisosis
having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
creates a blended phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other
One of Mendel's principles that states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
An operon that is normally off but can be activated and is normally catabolic
A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
The strand in replication that is copied 3' to 5' as Okazaki fragments and then joined up.
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
Traits (genes) that are likely to occur in the same organism because they are located closely on the same chromosome and therefore are less likely to be separated.
A method of viral replication in which a viral genome is replicated as a provirus without destroying the host cell
a method of viral replication that results in the destruction of a host cell and the release of many new virus particles
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
The branch of genetics concerned with patterns and process of inheritance. Dominant and recessive genes in one generation determine their proportions in the next generation
In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes don't separate; gametes end up with wrong number of chromosomes
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
in prokaryotes, a set of genes, often encoding the proteins needed for a complete metabolic pathway, including both the structural genes and a common promoter and operator that control transcription of the structural genes
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.
hairlike structure especially on the surface of a cell or microorganism
process by which several genes interact to produce a certain trait; responsible for most important traits
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
transcription is usually on, but can be inhibited (repressed) when a specific small molecule binds allosterically to a regulatory protein (example tryptophan)
ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
sex linked traits
traits that are dominant or recessive depending on gender, disorder pertinent to gender, ie females cant be colorblind..traits can only be carried or present on X or female gene
The process by which introns are removed from primary RNA transcripts and the remaining exons are connected together.
the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis
The protective structure at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome. Specifically, the tandemly repetitive DNA at the end of the chromosome's DNA molecule. See also repetitive DNA.
the process whereby a transducer accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
Discovered transformation in pneumonia-causing bacteria.
Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, Colin MacLeod
Transforming agent" was DNA (3)
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
Determined that genetic DNA, not protein, was the genetic material using experiments about bacteriophages
Analyzed the base content of DNA and found that the amount of adenine equaled and amount of thymine and the amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine.
Worked to make an X-ray crystallography of DNA and found it to be a double helix of uniform diameter (~ 2nm) with Rosalind Franklin
woman who generated x-ray images of DNA, she povided Watson and Crick with key data about DNA
James Watson & Francis Crick
The men that discovered the double helix structure of DNA in which two strands were wound around eachother--led to discovery of how DNA is replicated.
Matthew Meselson & Franklin Stahl
Used isotopes of nitrogen to demonstrate that DNA replication could not be conservative or dispersive; evidence that DNA replication is semi-conservative
George Beadle & Edward Tatum
Using bread mold were able to discern that each gene appears to be responsible for making one enzyme that is needed for a biological process
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