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Chapter 3, Section 4: The Market Revolution
Terms, concepts and people from the period of economic development between the war of 1812 and the Civil War. -
Terms in this set (35)
In the 1800s,a shift from a home-based, often agricultural, economy to one based on money and the buying and selling of goods. Changes in labor and transportation increased the creation, sale and distribution of goods.
Development of skills in a specific kind of work
people who risk their time, money, and other resources to start and manage businesses
An economic system based on private property and free enterprise.
..., United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)
Communication by transmitting signals over a wire. Messages could be sent over long distances in a short period of time.
1765-1815) American engineer and inventor, he built the first commercially successful full-sized steamboat, the Clermont, which lead to the development of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and people
Robert Fulton's steamboat that set off a craze in America when it made the 150 mile journey from New York City to Albany up the Hudson in 32 hours.
American inventor and industrialist, he invented the mechanical reaper and harvesting machine that quickly cut down wheat.
United States industrialist who manufactured plows suitable for working the prairie soil (1804-1886) He did not invent green paint.
A channel dug across land and filled with water. The creation of these helped with the transportation during the Market Revolution. They were soon replaced by steamboats and railroads
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
The Blackhawk War
A war that began when the federal government ordered the Native American to be removed from Illinois.
"The Middle Ground"
The barrier area where Whites and Indians lived together and neither side was able to establish clear dominance. They carved out ways of living together, with each side making concession to the other
The Treaty of Fort Laramie
The us government and over 10,000 plains indians came to an agreement that would allow wagons to go west. In exchange, the US govt. promised that Native American lands in the west not be taken. The govt. backtracked on this.
Major Native American Tribes affected by the Treaty of Fort Laramie
Sioux, Cheyenne, Crow
Santa Fe Trail
A trail that extends from Missouri to New Mexico; an important route for settlers moving west in the 19th century.
2000 mile long path along which thousands of Americans journeyed to the Willamette Valley in the 1840's.
Joseph Smith and Brigham Young
Early founders of the Mormon religion and Mormon pioneers to the west.
11th President of the United States from Tennessee; committed to westward expansion; led the country during the Mexican War; U.S. annexed Texas and took over Oregon during his administration
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
slogan used in the 1844 presidential election as a call for us annexation of the oregon territory
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Motivation for moving to the West
To escape religious persecution. New markets for commerce Farming, Ranching and Mining. To find harbors in the Pacific for trade. To escape money debts back East.
noun: a physical place where things are bought and sold.
noun: the customers who buy products
verb: to present a product to customers who are likely to buy it.
Changes in transportation-
Canals were created - connecting rivers and streams. Steamboats were invented -they allowed travel up and down stream in less time. Railroads connected new parts of the country.
Changes in communication-
The telegraph and morse code allowed for communication across the country.
Changes in manufacturing-
Individual craftsmen were replaced by merchants who set up shops with their own workers. Many craftsmen then became wage earners instead of self employed
Changes in business / sales-
Merchants now no longer sold directly to customers in their 'hood'. They sold things or shipped things over long distances. Middlemen were created in order to ensure delivery
Changes in agriculture-
The new inventions such as the steel plow and the reaper allowed farmers to increase production and focus on one cash crop to maximize profits
Francis Cabot Lowell
Visited England and returned to the US to open a mill in Mass. that brought spining and weaving in one building in a town named after him
Privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them
Built by Germans to carry produce to town, used wide wheels, curved beds, canvas covers
A federally funded road, stretching from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois
A man-made waterway connecting Lake Erie in Toledo, OH to the Ohio River near Evansville, IN
a wagon covered by canvas used by pioneers for traveling west