refers to the loss of
electrons, and in the process the oxidized substance releases
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
the conversion of glucose to glycogen when the glucose in the blood exceeds the demand for storage in the liver hormone insulin
conversion of glycogen to glucose when blood sugar is low, Catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide, and water.
conversion of glycogen to glucose when blood sugar is low,
generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids The vast majority takes place in the liver and, to a smaller extent, in the cortex of kidney. This process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, or intense exercise and is highly endergonic
A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments which enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA.
substrate level phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism; occurs during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
aerobic cellular respiration reaction
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP
glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide +water+ energy (occurs in Mitochondrion)
phases of aerobic cellular respiration
Electron transport chain
a series of 10 chemical reactions that produce two molecules of ATP from one molecule of glucose
Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that takes place in the cytosol of cells in all living organisms. This pathway can function with or without the presence of oxygen. Aerobic conditions produce pyruvate and anaerobic conditions produce lactate. In aerobic conditions, the process converts one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate (pyruvic acid), generating energy in the form of two net molecules of ATP. Four molecules of ATP per glucose are actually produced; however, two are consumed as part of the preparatory phase. The initial phosphorylation of glucose is required to increase the reactivity (decrease its stability) in order for the molecule to be cleaved into two pyruvate molecules by the enzyme Aldolase.
Pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl-CoA and CO2
one molecule of NADH and one molecule of CO2 is formed
The third stage of cellular respiration, in which acetyl-CoA is combined with oxaloacetate to form citric acid. The citric acid is then decarboxylated twice and isomerized to recreate oxaloacetate. In the process, 3 molecules of NADH, 1 molecule of FADH2, and 1 molecule of GTP are formed (per acetyl-CoA)
When oxygen is present, acetyl-CoA is produced from the pyruvate molecules created from glycolysis. Once acetyl-CoA is formed, two processes can occur, aerobic or anaerobic respiration. When oxygen is present, the mitochondria will undergo aerobic respiration which leads to the Krebs cycle. However, if oxygen is not present, fermentation of the pyruvate molecule will occur. In the presence of oxygen, when acetyl-CoA is produced, the molecule then enters the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) inside the mitochondrial matrix, and gets oxidized to CO2 while at the same time reducing NAD to NADH. NADH can be used by the electron transport chain to create further ATP as part of oxidative phosphorylation. To fully oxidize the equivalent of one glucose molecule, two acetyl-CoA must be metabolized by the Krebs cycle. Two waste products, H2O and CO2, are created during this cycle.
electron transport system
a series of electron carrier molecules, found in the inner membrane of mitochondria, that extract energy from electrons and generate ATP or other energetic molecules.
In the mitochondrial electron transport chain electrons move from an electron donor (NADH or QH2) to a terminal electron acceptor (O2) via a series of redox reactions.
Usually the process goes only as far as glycolysis (2 ATPs), and does not enter the mitochondria for further breakdown. However, these 2 ATPs give your body enough energy to cross the finish line...and hopefully avoid being eaten by that lion...
In our cells, anaerobic respiration results in the production of lactic acid, the molecule that builds up when you 'feel the burn' during or after strenuous exercise. The lactic acid, plus the hydrogens (2H) released, cause the muscle to become more acidic, causing pain and burning in the muscle. Ow.
How many ATPs are produced after the oxidation of a molecule of glucose during ACR?
In aerobic respiration, one molecule of glucose yields 38 ATP molecules, eight produced during glycolysis, six from the link reaction and 24 from the Krebs cycle.
The net gain is 36 ATP, as two of the ATP molecules produced from glycolysis are used up in the re-oxidation of the hydrogen carrier molecule NAD.
List some of the kidney functions
Kidneys contribute to homeostasis of body fluids by regulation of blood ionic composition,
regulation of pH,
regulation of blood volume,
regulation of blood pressure, maintenance of blood osmolarity,
and excreting wastes and foreign substances.
Trace the passage of blood from the renal artery to the renal vein.
cortical radiate arteries,
What are the components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
consists of the juxtaglomerular cells of an afferent arteriole and the macula densa. The JGA helps regulate blood pressure
and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
Name the two types of nephrons and their location in the kidney
1) A cortical nephron has its glomerulus in the outer portion of the cortex and a short loop of Henle that penetrates only into the outer region of the medulla.
2) A juxtamedullary nephron has its glomerulus deep in the cortex close to the medulla; its long loop of Henle stretches through the medulla and almost reaches the renal papilla.
List the vascular components of the nephron
- Filtration occurs in the glomerulus, which receives blood from an afferent arteriole.
- Glomerular blood is drained by an efferent arteriole, which delivers blood to peritubular capillaries that surround the nephron tubules.
List the tubular components of the nephron
The glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the proximal and distal convoluted tubules are located in the cortex.
- The loop of Henle is located in the medulla.
- Filtrate from the distal convoluted tubule is drained into collecting ducts, which plunge through the medulla to empty urine into the calyces.
The network of tiny blood vessels that surrounds the proximal and distal tubules in the kidney in the medulla
The capillaries that surround the tubules of the nephron. The vasa recta reclaims reabsorbed substances, such as water and sodium ions in the medulla
structure of the endothelial capsular membrane (filtration membrane)
The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. It consists of the endothelial fenestrations, basal lamina, and filtration slits between pedicels of podocytes
Name the three steps involved in the formation of urine and direction of substances
is the pressure that drives filtration? What are the pressures that oppose filtration?
a. promoted by: Glomerular Blood Hydrostatic pressure
b. opposed by: Capsular Hydrostatic pressure and Blood Colloid Osmotic pressure
blood hydrostatic pressure
pressure of blood on walls, the force generated by the pumping action of the heart which helps push fluid and solutes out of capillaries
blood colloid osmotic pressure
the pressure created by plasma proteins in the blood which helps pull fluid and solutes into capillaries from interstitial spaces
capsular hydrostatic pressure
pressure exerted by the fluids already present in the glomerular capsule
-help drive fluids back into capillaries
Abnormalities in glomerular basement membrane associated with diabetes mellitus& antibody-antigen complexes. It causes excessive loss of protein (proteinuria, especially albumin-albunimuria)
Liver cannot keep up, therefore the following conditions develop: Hypoalbuminemia
- Lack of EPO hormone production in kidneys
- Often accompanies renal disease
- Treated with synthetic EPO