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AP Euro - Terms from Ch. 25
the terms part of Mr. Florio's Study Sheet for the Emergence of the Nation State *I apologize in advance for every "this" not followed by a noun*
Terms in this set (46)
Treaty of Paris, 1856
Signed at the Congress of Paris, this treaty effectively ended the Crimean War (Russia vs. Ottoman Empire, British Empire, Second French Empire, Kingdom of Sardinia). Russia was required to surrender territory near the mouth of the Black Sea, and to renounce claims of protection over Christians in the Ottoman Empire.The Black Sea was made neutral territory, was closed to all warships and the presence of armaments on its shores was forbidden. Marked a severe setback to Russian influence in the region.
Means "Lesser Germany;" this is the name of the state the Kleindeutsche Losung (a German nationalist movement, "Lesser German Solution") wanted to create. The movement only sought to unify the norther German states (which didn't include Austria); this proposal was favored by Prussia. It's counterpart is the Großdeutsche Losung.
Means "Greater Germany;" this is the name of the state the Großdeutsche Lösung (German nationalist movement, "Greater German solution") wanted to create. They wanted to unify all German-speaking peoples under one state, and was promoted by the Austrian Empire and its supporters. It's counterpart is the Kleindeutsche Losung and Kleinedeutchland.
This was a free-trading union formed by all the major German states (except Austria) to manage customs and economic policies within their territories. It was also formed to remove the various obstacles (such as different weights and measures in the German states) to economic exchange and growth. The favorability of abolishing internal tariffs that impeded economic growth was realized by Prussian reformers following the Napoleonic wars. The union created a national unity (economically, at least) at a time when Germany was divided.
Battle of Solferino
Fought in 1859, this battle resulted in the victory of the allied French and Sardinian armies (led by Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel II, respectively) over the the Austrians (led by Franz Joseph I) in North Eastern Italy. It marked the unification of Italy. It was also the last major battle in world history where all the armies were under the personal command of their monarchs. The suffering it caused let Jean-Henri Dunant (Swiss) to start a process that led to the establishment of the International Red Cross and the Geneva Conventions.
Siege of Metz
Lasting from August 19 until October 27, 1870, this battle was fought during the Franco-Prussian War and ended in a decisive Prussian victory.
Peace of Prague
This was a peace treaty signed at Prague on August 23, 1866, which ended the Austro-Prussian War. The treaty was lenient toward the Austrian Empire because Otto von Bismarck had persuaded William I that maintaining Austria's place in Europe would be better in the future for Prussia than harsh terms. Austria only lost Venetia, ceded to Napoleon III of France, who in turn ceded it to Italy. Austria refused to give Venetia directly to Italy because the Austrians had crushed the Italians during the war. The Habsburgs were permanently excluded from German affairs (Kleindeutschland). The Kingdom of Prussia thus established itself as the only major power among the German states. The North German Confederation was formed, with the north German states joining together, and the Southern German states having to pay large indemnities to Prussia.
This occurred when the nationalistic king of Denmark, Fredrick VII, tried to annex the two provinces, Schleswig and Holstein, into the kingdom of Denmark. Although he was duke of the two provinces, the inhabitants of the provinces were predominantly German, and the idea of Germans being forced into the kingdom of Denmark infuriated the Germans in the provinces. The National Assembly then appealed to Fredrick William IV to send in troops to crush the Danes, and he did. The two provinces then go back to the way they were before. The significance: it demonstrated that the national ideal was a crucial factor in motivating the middle class in 1848.
A bicameral imperial parliament that governed the Habsburg Empire for six years and Austria until World War I. The upper chamber was appointed by the emperor and the lower chamber was indirectly elected.
Also called the "Fourth French Revolution," this was a revolutionary municipal council, led by radicals, that engaged in a civil war (March-May 1871) with the National Assembly of the newly established Third Republic, set up after the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco- Prussian War. It existed before the split between anarchists and Marxists (debates over policies and outcome of the Commune contributed to their split), and is hailed by both groups as the first assumption of power by the working class during the Industrial Revolution.
Meaning "Emperor," this was the title of the Holy Roman Emperors, or the emperors of Austria or Germany, until 1918.
Like the Russian "Czar" (or Tsar/Tzar) it is directly derived from the Roman Emperors' title of Caesar.
Blood and Iron
This was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany.
Kingdom of Italy
This was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which was its legal predecessor state. It existed until 1946 when the Italians opted for a republican constitution.
These are fees charged by a mutual fund on shareholders who redeem fund shares within a short period of time. The intent of the redemption fees is to discourage rapid-fire shifts from one fund to another in an attempt to "time" swings in the stock market. [guess it appeared during the mid 1800s?]
The economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined, that class struggle, which originates in capitalism, is needed to create historical change and that communism would replace capitalism. Communism would be a classless, stateless, moneyless society based on common ownership and the principle of "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."
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