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163 terms

Muscular System

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muscles
What are the organs of the musclar system?
fibers
muscles are composed of several hundreds of thousands of elongated cells called
shortening and contracting
each fiber is specialized for these two fucntions
cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
heart
Where is cardiac muscle found
cardiac
this type of muscle tissue pushes blood through the circulatory system
smooth
this type of muscle tissue pushes liquids and solids throughout the digestive system and regulates the openings of arteries
skeletal
this type of muscle tissue pulls on bones to allow the body to move
fibers, connective tissue, artery, vein, nerve
Each muscle contains these 5 things
Postural/Skeletal Movement, Maintain Posture, Protect and Support other Soft Tissue, Control Openings into the Body, Maintain Body Temperature, Store Nutrients
what are the 6 functions of skeletal muscle?
Postural/Skeletal Movement
this function of skeletal muscle produces contractions that pull on tendons, which move the body
maintain posture
this function of skeletal muscle creates constant tension in resting muscles that maintain the body position, whether sitting or standing.
Protect and support other soft tissue
this function of skeletal muscle supports the weight of the visceral organs and shields them from injury.
control openings into the body
this function of skeletal muscle creates circular muscles sphincters that control openings to the urinary and digestive systems.
maintain body temperature
this function of skeletal muscle describes the amount of energy needed for a muscle to contract. this produces a large amount of heat
stores nutrients
this function of skeletal muscle contains large amounts of amino acids.
deep fascia
the organization of skeletal muscles is made up of 3 layers of connective tissue that support each muscle and comprise of the
endomysium
this is the inner most layer
endomysium
this layer is made up of elastic connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber.
it contains muscle fibers, capillaries, neurons, and satellite cells
Perimysium
this is the middle layer
Perimysium
this layer surrounds many muscle fibers and bundles them into fasicles bundles of muscle fibers
epimysium
this is the outer most layer
epimysium
this layer bundles together all fasicles and separates muscles from other muscles and organs
tendon (aponeurosis)
all 3 connective tissue layers extend beyond the ends of the muscle fibers and combine to form THIS
sarcolemma
this is a part of the muscle fiber that is the cell membrane of a muscle fiber. It is excitable (able to conduct an electrical impluse)
Sarcoplasm
this is a part of the muscle fiber that is the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
Transverse tubules
this is a part of the muscle fiber that are hallow tubes that pass through the sarcoplasm from the sarcolemma.
they can also carry electrical impulses from the sarcolemma into inter of the cell.
myofibrils
this is a part of the muscle fiber that are long organelles that fill the muscle cell.
they contain tiny strands of contracile proteins called actin and myosin
they are responsible for cell contraction
sarcoplasmic reticulum
this is a part of the muscle fibers that is a system of membranes. In this, each myofibril is wrapped.
This stores calcium ions used for muscle cell contractions
they are encircled by t-tubules and carry electrical impulses.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
what stores calcium ions used for muscle cell contraction
when calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
when does muscle contraction start
sarcomere
this is a part of a muscle fiber that conducts the actual contracting unit of a myofibril.
actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin
each sarcomere contains strands of
actin
this is a strand of the sarcomere that contains filaments organized along a z line.
myosin
this is a strand of the sarcomere that contains filaments organized along a M line
cell contraction
this is created by the interactions between thick and thin filaments with the sarcomeres
thin filaments
these types of filaments include actin tropomyosin and trponin
actin
this thin filament contains 2 large, twisted, strands attached to a Z line. It contains active sites that bind with myosin
tropomyosin
this thin filament contains a double stranded molecule attached to actin. It contains protein molecules called troponin
troponin
this thin filament binds tropomyosin to active sites on actin, which prevents contractions. It is controlled by calcium ions
thick filaments
these types of filaments include myosin
myosin
this thick filament is twisted into sub units that attach to the m line.
myosin head
this part of myosin binds to active sites on active, which forms cross bridges.
this also pivots and provides movement
neuromuscular junction
this is a specialized connection between the nervous system and a skeletal muscle fiber.
synaptic terminal
this part of a neuron is the expanded region at the end of an axon
acetylcholine
this part of a neuron is a chemical messenger that is produced in the synaptic terminal and furthermore stores in vesicles
they are released by neurons.
they allow for communication with another cell
motor end plate
this part of a neuron is a region on the muscle fiber sarcolemma.
it receives the signal from a motor neuron
synaptic cleft
this part of a neuron is the gap between the synaptic terminal and the motor end plate
action potential
this part of a neuron is the electrical impluse. it travels along the neruon's axon to the synaptic terminal. the synaptic terminal eleases acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, which flows and binds to receptors on the motor end plate.
THIS is generated along the entire muscle fiber sarcolemma and into the t tubules
muscle tension
this occurs when a muscle fiber contracts.
the total amount of this produced in the whole muscle depends on the total number if muscle fibers contracting
motor unit
this is all of the muscles controlled by a single motor neuron
this is equal to a motor neuron + all of te muscle fibers controlled by it
recruitment
this is the process of calling up more motor units when more tension is needed
rest and recover
during a sustained contraction, motor united are activated on a rotating basis.
this allows fibers to do this
muscle tone
this is a resting tension in a muscle
stability (of muscles and bones), fast recruitment (because some motor units are already stimulated), and weight loss (as toned muscles use more energy to help burn more calories)
what are the three benefits of muscle tone?
isotonic and isometric
what are the two types of muscle contractions?
isotonic contraction
this type of muscle contraction states that as tension change, muscle length changes
concentric and eccentric
what are the two types of isotonic contraction?
concentric isotonic contraction
this is a type of isotonic contraction where the muscle tension exceeds the resistance and the muscle SHORTENS
eccentric
this is a type of isotonic contraction where the muscle tension equals the resistence. there is NO CHANGE in muscle length.
fast, slow, intermediate
what are the three types of muscle fibers?
Fast fibers
contraction speed: very quick, but strong
Fiber size: large diameter
Fatigue resistance: fatigues quite quickly
Energy production: large reserves of glycogen that store glucose which is used for the rapid production of anerobic ATP.
phasic muscles provide movement
phasic muscles
type of fast fiber that produces movement
quick
what is the contraction speed of fast fibers
large diameter
what is the fiber size of fast fibers
fatigues quickly
what is the fatigue resistance of fast fibers
anerobic ATP
what is the means of energy production for fast fibers
slow fibers
contraction speed: very slow
fiber size: small fiber diameter and weak contraction
fatigue resistance: high resistance (can last for hours)
energy product: large amounts of myoglobin, which is a red pigment that binds oxygen to ATP for aerobic production.
postural muscle
what type of muscle of slow fibers resists gravity?
slow
what is the contraction speed of slow fibers
small diameter
what is the fiber size of slow fibers
resistant (can last for hours)
what is the fatigue resistance of slow fibers
aerobic myoglobin
what is the energy production of slow fibers
intermediate fibers
contraction speed: fairly fast
fiber size: intermediate
fatigue resistance: intermediate
energy production: aerobic and anerobic
fairly fast
what is the contraction speed of intermediate fibers
intermediate diameter
what is the fiber size of intermediate fibers
intermediate resistance
what is the fatigue resistance of intermediate fibers
anerobic and aerobic
what is the energy production of intermediate fibers
white, red
what are the two colors of muscle fibers
white
this color of muscle fibers is made up of mostly fast fibers and is pale in color
Ex: chicken breast
red
this color of muscle fibers is made up of mostly slow fibers and is dark.
Ex: chicken leg
human
this creature contains mixed fibers and appears pink in color
hypertrophy, atrophy
what are the two types of muscle growth
hypertrophy
this is the type of muscle growth that occurs from increased exercise. It increases the muscle diameter and number of myofibrils
atrophy
this is the type of muscle growth that causes muscle loss from decreased exercise. It causes a decrease in muscle fiber diameter and number of myofibrils. It causes reduced tone and power.
opposing
muscles are organized in -------- pairs
insertion
this is the term that describes the point of attachment where the most movement occurs.
towards
insertion moves ------- the origin
belly
this is the term that describes the fleshy portion of the muscle
action
this is the term that describes the movement produced by the muscle.
Examples include flexion, extension, abduction, etc.
agonist
this is the term that describes the muscle producing the particular movement (action)
antagonist
this is the term that describes the muscle that stretches to allow the agonist to perform its action
stabilizer
this is the term that means the point that holds the origin in place furring movement.
muscles of expression
Occipitofrontali, obicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, buccinator, zygomatic major, zygomatic minor, platsmus make up this type of muscle
superior-nuchal line of the occipital bone
Occipitalis origin
galea aponeurotica
occipitalis insertion
tenses and retracts scapula
occipitalis action
galea aponeurotica
frontalis origin
skin of eyebrows
frontalis insertion
raises eyebrows
frontalis action
medial margin of orbit
orbicularis oculi origin
skin around eyelids
orbicularis oculi insertion
closes eyes
orbicularis oculi action
maxillary bone and mandible
orbicularis oris origin
skin of lips
orbicularis oris insertion
compresses corner of mouth
orbicularis oris action
alveolar process
buccinator origin
fibers of orbicularis oris
buccinator insertion
compresses cheeks and directs food
buccinator action
zygomatic bone near zygomatic maxillary suture
zygomaticus major origin
angle of mouth
zygomaticus major insertion
retracts and elavates corner of mouth (smile)
zygomaticus minor and major action
zygomatic bone posterior to zygomatic temporal suture
zygomaticus minor origin
upper lip
zygomaticus minor insertion
superior thorax
platysmus origin
mandible and skin of cheek
platysmus insertion
tenses skin of neck and depresses mandible (frown)
platysmus action
muscles of mastication
temporalis and masseter
temporal lines of skull
temporalis origin
coronoid process
temporalis insertion
elevates mandible
temporalis action
zygomatic arch
masseter origin
lateral surface of mandibular ramus
masseter insertion
elevates mandible
masseter action
ribs and sternum
origin of rectus abdominis
pubic bones
rectus abdominis insertion
flexion of torso
rectus abdominis action
muscles of the shoulder
deltoids, rotator cuff
lateral clavicle
anterior deltoid origin
acromion process
middle deltoid origin
spine of scapula
posterior deltoid origin
deltoid tuberosity of humerus
insertion of all deltoid muscles
abduction of shoulders
action of all deltoid muscles
flexion of shoulder
action of anterior deltoid
extension of shoulder
action of posterior deltoid
subscapular fossa of scapula
subscapularis origin
lesser turbercle of humerus
insertion of subscapularis
medial rotation
action of subscapularis
infraspinous fossa of scapula
infraspinatus origin
greater tubercle of humerus
insertion of infraspinatus
lateral shoulder rotation
action of infraspinatus
lateral border of scapula
teres minor origin
greater tubercle
teres minor insertion
lateral rotation
teres minor action
supraspinous fossa
supraspinatus origin
greater tubercle
insertion of supraspinatus
abduction of shoulder
supraspinatus action
muscles of thigh and leg
quadriceps, hamstrings, gastronemius, soleus
ischial tuberosity
semimembranosis origin
posterior condyle of tibia
semimembranosis insertion
flexion at knee, extension at hip
semimembranosis action
ischial tuberosity
semitendenosis origin
posterior medial condyle of tibia
semitendenosis insertion
flexion at knee, extension of hip
semitendenosis action
ischial tuberosity
bicep femoris origin
lateral condyle of tibia
bicep femoris insertion
flexion at knee, extension at hip
bicep femoris action
femoral condyle
origin of gastrocnemius
calcaneous tendon
insertion of gastrocnemius
plantar flextion
action of gastrocnemius
shaft of fibula and tibia
soleus origin
calcaneous tendon
soleus insertion
plantar flexion
soleus action