muscles are composed of several hundreds of thousands of elongated cells called
shortening and contracting
each fiber is specialized for these two fucntions
cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
Where is cardiac muscle found
this type of muscle tissue pushes blood through the circulatory system
this type of muscle tissue pushes liquids and solids throughout the digestive system and regulates the openings of arteries
this type of muscle tissue pulls on bones to allow the body to move
fibers, connective tissue, artery, vein, nerve
Each muscle contains these 5 things
Postural/Skeletal Movement, Maintain Posture, Protect and Support other Soft Tissue, Control Openings into the Body, Maintain Body Temperature, Store Nutrients
what are the 6 functions of skeletal muscle?
this function of skeletal muscle produces contractions that pull on tendons, which move the body
this function of skeletal muscle creates constant tension in resting muscles that maintain the body position, whether sitting or standing.
Protect and support other soft tissue
this function of skeletal muscle supports the weight of the visceral organs and shields them from injury.
control openings into the body
this function of skeletal muscle creates circular muscles sphincters that control openings to the urinary and digestive systems.
maintain body temperature
this function of skeletal muscle describes the amount of energy needed for a muscle to contract. this produces a large amount of heat
this function of skeletal muscle contains large amounts of amino acids.
the organization of skeletal muscles is made up of 3 layers of connective tissue that support each muscle and comprise of the
this is the inner most layer
this layer is made up of elastic connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber. it contains muscle fibers, capillaries, neurons, and satellite cells
this is the middle layer
this layer surrounds many muscle fibers and bundles them into fasicles bundles of muscle fibers
this is the outer most layer
this layer bundles together all fasicles and separates muscles from other muscles and organs
all 3 connective tissue layers extend beyond the ends of the muscle fibers and combine to form THIS
this is a part of the muscle fiber that is the cell membrane of a muscle fiber. It is excitable (able to conduct an electrical impluse)
this is a part of the muscle fiber that is the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
this is a part of the muscle fiber that are hallow tubes that pass through the sarcoplasm from the sarcolemma. they can also carry electrical impulses from the sarcolemma into inter of the cell.
this is a part of the muscle fiber that are long organelles that fill the muscle cell. they contain tiny strands of contracile proteins called actin and myosin they are responsible for cell contraction
this is a part of the muscle fibers that is a system of membranes. In this, each myofibril is wrapped. This stores calcium ions used for muscle cell contractions they are encircled by t-tubules and carry electrical impulses.
what stores calcium ions used for muscle cell contraction
when calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
when does muscle contraction start
this is a part of a muscle fiber that conducts the actual contracting unit of a myofibril.
actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin
each sarcomere contains strands of
this is a strand of the sarcomere that contains filaments organized along a z line.
this is a strand of the sarcomere that contains filaments organized along a M line
this is created by the interactions between thick and thin filaments with the sarcomeres
these types of filaments include actin tropomyosin and trponin
this thin filament contains 2 large, twisted, strands attached to a Z line. It contains active sites that bind with myosin
this thin filament contains a double stranded molecule attached to actin. It contains protein molecules called troponin
this thin filament binds tropomyosin to active sites on actin, which prevents contractions. It is controlled by calcium ions
these types of filaments include myosin
this thick filament is twisted into sub units that attach to the m line.
this part of myosin binds to active sites on active, which forms cross bridges. this also pivots and provides movement
this is a specialized connection between the nervous system and a skeletal muscle fiber.
this part of a neuron is the expanded region at the end of an axon
this part of a neuron is a chemical messenger that is produced in the synaptic terminal and furthermore stores in vesicles they are released by neurons. they allow for communication with another cell
motor end plate
this part of a neuron is a region on the muscle fiber sarcolemma. it receives the signal from a motor neuron
this part of a neuron is the gap between the synaptic terminal and the motor end plate
this part of a neuron is the electrical impluse. it travels along the neruon's axon to the synaptic terminal. the synaptic terminal eleases acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, which flows and binds to receptors on the motor end plate. THIS is generated along the entire muscle fiber sarcolemma and into the t tubules
this occurs when a muscle fiber contracts. the total amount of this produced in the whole muscle depends on the total number if muscle fibers contracting
this is all of the muscles controlled by a single motor neuron this is equal to a motor neuron + all of te muscle fibers controlled by it
this is the process of calling up more motor units when more tension is needed
rest and recover
during a sustained contraction, motor united are activated on a rotating basis. this allows fibers to do this
this is a resting tension in a muscle
stability (of muscles and bones), fast recruitment (because some motor units are already stimulated), and weight loss (as toned muscles use more energy to help burn more calories)
what are the three benefits of muscle tone?
isotonic and isometric
what are the two types of muscle contractions?
this type of muscle contraction states that as tension change, muscle length changes
concentric and eccentric
what are the two types of isotonic contraction?
concentric isotonic contraction
this is a type of isotonic contraction where the muscle tension exceeds the resistance and the muscle SHORTENS
this is a type of isotonic contraction where the muscle tension equals the resistence. there is NO CHANGE in muscle length.
fast, slow, intermediate
what are the three types of muscle fibers?
contraction speed: very quick, but strong Fiber size: large diameter Fatigue resistance: fatigues quite quickly Energy production: large reserves of glycogen that store glucose which is used for the rapid production of anerobic ATP. phasic muscles provide movement
type of fast fiber that produces movement
what is the contraction speed of fast fibers
what is the fiber size of fast fibers
what is the fatigue resistance of fast fibers
what is the means of energy production for fast fibers
contraction speed: very slow fiber size: small fiber diameter and weak contraction fatigue resistance: high resistance (can last for hours) energy product: large amounts of myoglobin, which is a red pigment that binds oxygen to ATP for aerobic production.
what type of muscle of slow fibers resists gravity?
what is the contraction speed of slow fibers
what is the fiber size of slow fibers
resistant (can last for hours)
what is the fatigue resistance of slow fibers
what is the energy production of slow fibers
contraction speed: fairly fast fiber size: intermediate fatigue resistance: intermediate energy production: aerobic and anerobic
what is the contraction speed of intermediate fibers
what is the fiber size of intermediate fibers
what is the fatigue resistance of intermediate fibers
anerobic and aerobic
what is the energy production of intermediate fibers
what are the two colors of muscle fibers
this color of muscle fibers is made up of mostly fast fibers and is pale in color Ex: chicken breast
this color of muscle fibers is made up of mostly slow fibers and is dark. Ex: chicken leg
this creature contains mixed fibers and appears pink in color
what are the two types of muscle growth
this is the type of muscle growth that occurs from increased exercise. It increases the muscle diameter and number of myofibrils
this is the type of muscle growth that causes muscle loss from decreased exercise. It causes a decrease in muscle fiber diameter and number of myofibrils. It causes reduced tone and power.
muscles are organized in -------- pairs
this is the term that describes the point of attachment where the most movement occurs.
insertion moves ------- the origin
this is the term that describes the fleshy portion of the muscle
this is the term that describes the movement produced by the muscle. Examples include flexion, extension, abduction, etc.
this is the term that describes the muscle producing the particular movement (action)
this is the term that describes the muscle that stretches to allow the agonist to perform its action
this is the term that means the point that holds the origin in place furring movement.
muscles of expression
Occipitofrontali, obicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, buccinator, zygomatic major, zygomatic minor, platsmus make up this type of muscle
superior-nuchal line of the occipital bone
tenses and retracts scapula
skin of eyebrows
medial margin of orbit
orbicularis oculi origin
skin around eyelids
orbicularis oculi insertion
orbicularis oculi action
maxillary bone and mandible
orbicularis oris origin
skin of lips
orbicularis oris insertion
compresses corner of mouth
orbicularis oris action
fibers of orbicularis oris
compresses cheeks and directs food
zygomatic bone near zygomatic maxillary suture
zygomaticus major origin
angle of mouth
zygomaticus major insertion
retracts and elavates corner of mouth (smile)
zygomaticus minor and major action
zygomatic bone posterior to zygomatic temporal suture
zygomaticus minor origin
zygomaticus minor insertion
mandible and skin of cheek
tenses skin of neck and depresses mandible (frown)