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psychology

learning,
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learning
any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs due to experience
behaviorism
school of psychology that accounts for behaviors in terms of observable events
conditioning
forms associations between environment stimuli and responses.
classical, operant conditioning are examples
regarding senstation and perception, which of the following statements is true
sensations involves the activation sense receptors;perception involves interpretation
the stimulus intensity that one can just barely detect is termed the ________ threshold
absolute
events that occur below the absolute threshold are termed ________ stimuli
subliminal
which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order in which light passes through the structures of the eye during vision.
cornea-pupil-lens-retina
in comparison to cones,rods
are more sensitive to light.
cones
= color
rods
= black/white
which of the following is not a binocular cue to depth perception
interposition
repeated exposure to sound over___dB can damage one's hearing;even infrequent exposure to sounds over______dB can produce hearing loss.
85;130
according to your text, how many basic types of taste are there?
six
proprioception( or kinesthesis) refers to
our ability to sense the positions of our body parts
__________ is a phenomenon in which one sensation may evoke multiple perceptions,even ones associated with different sensory systems
synesthesia
psychologist define_____ as the capacity to learn from experience, solve problems, and to adapt to new situations
intelligence
the practical problem alfred binet was trying to solve when he developed his intelligence test was
helping teachers better educating students of differing abilities
intelligence is positively related to
the number of neurons in the brain, the thickness of the cortex, the volume of the brain
a persisting issue or controversy in psychology that is especially relevant to the study of intelligence is that of
nature vs nurture
which of the following defines mental retardation
having an IQ below 70 and having trouble with basic skills
the IQ intellectually gifted individuals is_________ or above
130
which of the following in the best definition of eugenics
a misguided attempt to improve the human species through selective reproduction.
your text reports the case of a girl named genie who was exposed to virtually no language from the age of 20 months until the age of 13. in what way does genie case offer support for the notion of a critical period in language acquisition
even with intensive instuction, genie acquire only a very small vocabulary after the age of 13; furthermore, she never mastered the complexities of language.
as compared to people who speak only one language,bilinguals
show superior analytic skills, may be more cognitively flexible, demonstrate better cognitive functioning
psychologist have attempted to teach a number of nonhuman primates to communicate using american sign language, which of the following statements accurately reflect the linguistic accomplishments of these animals
they can learn the signs for a large number of words, they can combine signs into simple sentences, they can learn signs simply through observation.
psychologist use the term_____ to refer to a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience
learning
___________ is a type of learing in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that would elicit the same response naturally
classical conditioning
often , a conditioned response may be elicited not only by the original cs, but by a similar one as well. this known as stimulus
generalization
which of the following defines conditioned stimulus
something that creates a response only after conditioning.
classical conditioning applies mainly to_________ behaviors. operant conditioning applies primarily to__________
existing, new behaviors
negative reinforcement
leads to a increase in the probability to the behavior
reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called _______ reinforcers
primarily
learning that occurs internally and is expressed behaviorally only when there is sufficent motivation to do so is called ______learning
latent
bandura's "bobo doll" experiment s were intended to demonstrate
observational learning
the use of classical conditioning principles in advertising is most likely to be effective when
when we give little thought to choices.
absolute threshold
the smallest amount of energy a person can detect reliably ( 50% of the time)
hue
to color and related to wavelength
brightness
intensity
corresponds to amplitude of the wave
saturation
colorfulness
complexity of range of the wavelength
cornea
front part of the eye
protects eye
bends light rays towards lens
lens
located behind the cornea
focuses on the light by changing curvature
iris
muscles that control the amount of light that comes through the eyes
pupil
round opening surrounded by the iris
widens and dilates to allow more or less light