Legislation to protect an economy against the importing of a good at a price below its unit cost of production.
An increase in the value of a country's currency in a floating exchange rate system.
balance of payments
The accounting record of all transactions (debits and credits) between the households, firms and government of one country, and the rest of the world.
barriers to trade
Anything which prevents free trade between two countries, e.g. tariffs, quotas.
A customs union with common policies on product regulation, and free movement of goods, services, capital and labour.
A measure of the international flow of funds from trade in goods and services, plus net investment income flows (profit, interest and dividends) and net transfers of money (foreign aid, grants and remittances).
current account deficit
Where revenue from the exports of goods and services and income flows is less than the expenditure on the import of goods and services and income flows in a given year.
current account surplus
Where the revenue from the export of goods and services and income flows is greater than the expenditure on the import of goods and services and income flows in a given year.
An agreement made between countries, where the countries agree to work towards free trade among themselves and they also agree to adopt common external barriers against any country outside the union.
A decrease in the value of a country's currency in a floating exchange rate system.
A decrease in the value of a country's currency in a fixed exchange rate system.
The selling of a good in another country at a price below its unit cost of production.
The value of one currency expressed in terms of another currency.
Policies implemented by the government that attempt to reduce overall expenditure in the economy, in order to reduce expenditure on imports.
Policies implemented by the government that attempt to switch the expenditure of domestic consumers away from imports towards domestically produced goods and services.
Strategies to encourage economic growth through increased international trade and the furtherance of export industries.
A measure of the net change in foreign ownership of domestic financial assets, including foreign direct investment, portfolio investment and changes in foreign reserves.
fixed exchange rate
An exchange rate regime where the value of a currency is fixed, or pegged, to the value of another currency, (or to the average value of a selection of currencies, or to the value of some other commodity, e.g. gold).
floating exchange rate
An exchange rate regime where the value of a currency is allowed to be determined solely by the demand for, and supply of, the currency on the foreign exchange market.
free trade area
An agreement made between countries, where the countries agree to work towards free trade among themselves, but are able to trade with countries outside the free trade area in whatever way they wish.
Strategies to encourage the domestic production of goods in order to reduce imports and stimulate local producers. Such policies rely on the use of protectionism.
An organisation working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade and reduce poverty.
Foreign currencies held by governments (central banks) as a result of international trade. Reserves may be held so that the government may maintain a desired exchange rate for the country's currencies.
Where two or more countries share the same currency and have a common central bank.
The purchase of financial investments such as shares and bonds in order to gain a financial return in the form of interest or dividends.
preferential trade agreement
Where a country agrees to give favoured access, e.g. reduced tariffs, to certain products from one or more trading partners.
Import barriers that set limits on the quantity or value of imports that may be imported into a country.
Where a country responds to the imposition of a tariff by a trading partner by imposing a tariff on that country's products.
An increase in the value of a country's currency in a fixed exchange rate system.
Where foreign currency traders make a decision to buy or sell a currency based on their expectations of future exchange rate movements.
An amount of money paid by the government to a firm, per unit of output, to encourage output and to give the firm an advantage over foreign competition.
A duty (tax) that is placed upon imports to protect domestic industries from foreign competition.
Any association of one or more countries where an agreement is made to reduce trade barriers.
Involves the exchange of goods or services between two countries.
An international body that sets the rules for global trading and resolves disputes between its member countries. It also hosts negotiations concerning the reduction of trade barriers between its member nations.