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33 terms

Honors Biology - Genetics Test

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Genetics
The study of heredity.
Heredity
Biological inheritance.
Gregor Mendel
"Father of Modern Genetics;" studied garden peas in a monastery garden (1860s).
Purebred
Homozygous, such as AA or aa.
Hybrid
Heterozygous, such as Aa.
Genes
Individual factors that control each trait in living organisms.
Alleles
Different forms of the same gene (such as a dominant form and a recessive form).
Dominant
A "stronger" allele that can mask or hide a "weaker" (recessive) allele.
Recessive
A "weaker" allele that can be masked or hidden by a "stronger" (dominant) allele.
P Generation
The original, parental generation.
F1 Generation
The first generation produced by a cross (the offspring of the P generation).
F2 Generation
The second generation produced by a cross (the offspring of the F1 generation).
Punnett Square
Shows the possible gene combinations among the offspring that result from a cross.
Gamete
Reproductive cell.
Phenotype
Physical characteristics of an organism. ("What you see.")
Genotype
Genetic makeup of an organism. ("Alleles they are carrying.")
Homozygous
Organisms that have two identical alleles; also known as purebred.
Heterozygous
Organisms that have two different alleles; also known as hybrid.
Monohybrid
A genetic cross in which the parents differ in only ONE characteristic; solved using a Punnett square with four boxes.
Dihybrid
A genetic cross in which the parents differ in TWO characteristics; solved using a Punnett square with sixteen boxes.
Testcross
An unknown dominant organism (such as AA or Aa) is crossed with a recessive organism (aa). The offspring are examined to determine if the unknown parent is homozygous dominant or heterozygous.
Incomplete Dominance
Situation in which the dominant allele is unable to completely hide the recessive allele. The heterozygous organism has an intermediate phenotype (such as pink flowers).
Codominance
Situation in which two alleles are equally dominant and both are expressed (such as Type AB blood).
Multiple Alleles
Situation in which a gene contains three or more alleles (instead of the usual two). For example, the blood type gene has three alleles (A, B, O).
Polygenic Inheritance
Complicated traits with lots of variety are controlled by two or more genes. This is common in humans.
Universal Donor
Special term for Type O- blood which can be given to individuals of any blood type.
Universal Recipient
Special term for Type AB+ blood which can receive blood from individuals of any blood type.
Sex Chromosomes
XY in human males and XX in human females.
Autosomes
All the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes.
Sex-Linked Gene
Any gene located on a sex chromosome (usually the X chromosome).
Wild-Type
Most common form of a trait in nature.
Pedigree
Family tree used to trace the inheritance of a trait through several generations.
Chromosome Theory of Heredity
Each chromosome contains many genes that control inheritance of traits from parents to offspring.