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American Red Cross Lifeguard Ch. Review
Terms in this set (56)
What items are considered to be personal protective equipment for a lifeguard?
Gloves and Ventilation mask
What equipment should be worn or carried by a lifeguard at all times while on duty? List at least two and include the reason(s) why this equipment should be worn or carried
Resuscitation Mask (PPE)
Whistle (activate EAP/get othere's attention)
Rescue tube (execute saves)
What safety equipment/items should be easily accessible for a lifeguard while on duty? List at least two and describe how/when each item is used.
Backboard (remove victim from water)
Rescue Buoys (aid multiple victims)
As a lifeguard, you are responsible for:
Consistently enforcing your facility's rules and regulations.
List five common rules and regulations often posted at an aquatic facility.
1. Swim only when a lifeguard is on duty.
2. Swim diapers are required for small children or
people with incontinence.
3. No swimming with open or infected wounds.
4. Obey lifeguard instructions at all times.
5. No running, pushing or rough play.
6. No hyperventilating before swimming
underwater or breath-holding contests.
7. No sitting or playing near or with drains or
8. Dive only in designated areas (Figure 2-20).
9. No glass containers in the pool area and
10. No alcoholic beverages or drug use allowed.
Explain what it means to be "equipped and rescue-ready."
Understand rescues and their execution. Have proper training, and equipment. Be properly address and professional while on stand.
7. Identify at least two reasons why each lifeguard in the images below is not equipped and rescue-ready and indicate what can be done to improve each situation.
1. No tube and no protection from the sun (hat or glasses)
2. Relaxed position and shoes on
3. Not wearing hip pack, no shat or sun glasses
1. Which list of typical safety checklist items, along with others, applies to a lake front swimming area?
B | Bottom conditions, pier attachments, buoys, safety line
2. Which list of typical rules, along with others, applies to a lakefront swimming area?
C | No swimming under piers, no fishing near swimming area
In general, there are three types of swimmers in distress or drowning victims. List each type with three observable characteristics for each
1. Swimmers in Distress
• Able to keep their face out of the water.
• Able to call for help.
• Able to wave for help.
• Horizontal, vertical or diagonal, depending on what they use to support themselves.
• Floating, sculling or treading water.
2. Drowning Victim—Active
• May not be able to call out for help because their efforts are focused on getting a breath.
• Works to keep the face above water in an effort to breathe.
• May be in a horizontal face-down position during the struggle because they are unable to lift their face out of the water. This may be particularly likely with a younger swimmer, such as a toddler.
• Has extended their arms to the side or front, pressing down for support.
• Is positioned vertically in the water with an ineffective kick. A young child may tip into a horizontal face-down position.
• Might continue to struggle underwater once submerged.
• Eventually will lose consciousness and
3. Drowning Victim-Passive
• Might float face-down at or near the surface or might sink to the bottom
• May be limp or have slight convulsive-like movements.
• May have no defined arm or leg action, no locomotion and no breathing.
• May appear to be floating, if at the surface of the water.
• May be face-down, on one side or face-up, if at the bottom
Good to use with a crowded zone
Ideal for a single guard facility
Puts you close to the patrons to easily make assists
Used in waterfront facilities to patrol the outer edge of a swimming area
3. A lifeguard on duty should be able to recognize and reach a drowning victim within:
Lifeguards should be able to recognize
and reach a victim in their zone within
4. The size of a zone should allow for a lifeguard to recognize an emergency, reach the victim, extricate and provide ventilations within ______. Explain why.
In each zone, lifeguards should be able to recognize an emergency, get to a victim, extricate and start giving ventilations within 1½ minutes to 2 minutes.
5. What is the difference between total and zone coverage?
Zone Coverage: the swimming area is divided into separate zones, with one zone for each lifeguard station
Total Coverage: you will be
the only lifeguard conducting patron surveillance while you are on duty.
6. Lifeguards should be actively ___________ their zones.
D | Searching, to ensure nothing is missed
7. You are guarding a lap swim with only two patrons. All of the following will help you deal with the monotony EXCEPT for which?
C | Swing your whistle lanyard
8. It is very hot in your facility and you are starting to doze on the stand. All of the following can help you stay alert EXECPT for which?
D | Jump in the pool while on surveillance
duty to cool off
9. The glare of the lights on the water and the water movements are making it hard to see all areas of your zone. Circle all acceptable options.
A | Wear polarized sunglasses.
B | Adjust your body position; stand up to look
around and through the glare spots.
C | Reposition the lifeguard station with the
permission of your supervisor.
D | Be aware of the normal appearance
of the bottom of the pool; know the
appearance of drains, colored tiles
or painted depth markings.
10. Why is it important for lifeguard managers to conduct drills to test zones?
Regular zone tests are conducted to ensure that recognition and response times are achievable in each zone.
11. Fill in the blank: __________________________________________ , which can be described as rapid, deep breathing, is a dangerous technique used by some swimmers to try to swim long distances underwater or to hold their breath for an extended period while submerged in one place. If you see these dangerous activities, you must intervene.
12. RID stands for
R - Recognition (fail to recognize drowning signs)
I - Intrusion (2ndary tasks distract from primar)
D - Distraction (general distraction)
13. During rotation, both lifeguards must ensure there is no lapse in patron surveillance, even for a brief moment. To ensure this, what should each
1. As the incoming lifeguard, you should search the zone and be aware of the
activity level in the zone you will be guarding. Begin searching your zone as
you are walking toward your station, checking all areas of the water from the
bottom to the surface.
2. The outgoing lifeguard should inform you of any situations that need special attention. The exchange of
information should be brief, and patron surveillance must be maintained throughout the entire rotation.
Once in position, with the rescue tube strapped in place, make any adjustments needed, such as removing shoes or adjusting an umbrella before confirming to the outgoing lifeguard that you own the zone. Confirm and signal that the zone is clear and transfer responsibility for the zone. The outgoing lifeguard should continue scanning as they are walking toward the next station.
1. List the three major strategies a lifeguard can use to help prevent injuries at an aquatic facility.
Informing and Educating Patrons
INTERACTING PROFESSIONALLY WITH THE PUBLIC
2. List three things that can help determine if a life jacket is appropriate for use.
Swimming ability, activity and water conditions help determine which type of life jacket to use.
3. Many facilities have unique challenges that demand different kinds of surveillance.
For each situation listed below, list two guidelines you should keep in mind when
providing surveillance for patrons
1. Young Children areas
• Older children might be too large for some structures, or their play might be too rough for young
• Toddlers who are still learning to walk may fall easily. If they fall down in water, they usually cannot lift themselves to an upright position, even if the water is ankle or knee deep.
2. Play Structures
• Do not let a play structure become overcrowded. Be prepared to restrict the number of patrons using it at one time.
• Do not allow patrons to swim underneath structures.
4. Identify three strategies for ensuring safe group visits.
• Ensure that swimming areas are divided according to swimmers' abilities and are clearly marked.
• Ensure that patrons stay in the sections appropriate for their swimming abilities. Be aware that weak swimmers or non-swimmers,
excited to be together enjoying a recreational activity, may attempt to venture into areas that are beyond their swimming ability.
• Provide U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets for weak swimmers or non-swimmers.
5. Why is it important to educate your patrons about safety in, on and around the water
Safety orientations are
conducted when groups first arrive at the facility. The purpose is to educate all members of the
visiting group on your facility's policies and rules and to point out key safety issues. You may be
tasked with conducting these orientations.
6. You are in the lifeguard office taking a break from surveillance duty and a camp counselor requests a swim test for a new camper. You use the Red Cross water competency sequence to conduct a swim test. Describe these steps in order:
1. Enter the water and completely submerge.
2. Recover to the surface and remain there for at least 1 minute (floating or treading).
3. Rotate 360 degrees and orient to the exit.
4. Level off and propel oneself on the front or the back through the water for at least 25 yards.
5. Exit from the water.
1. Why should an EAP be facility specific?
Every aquatic facility has its own specific set of EAPs based on the unique characteristics at each facility. Plans include factors such as the facility's
layout, number of staff on duty at a time, location of backup lifeguards and other safety team members, equipment used and typical response times of the local emergency medical services (EMS) system.
2. Provide three examples of situation-based EAPs.
• Water emergency—Drowning victim—active
• Water emergency—Drowning victim—passive
• Water emergency—Spinal injury victim
• Water emergency—Missing person
• Land emergency—Injury or illness
3. Place the following EAP actions in order for a situation where the victim is responsive and does not require additional care:
report advise release
equipment check/corrective action
return to duty
4. Describe the actions of the additional safety team members listed below during a
rescue where the victim is unresponsive and requires additional emergency care.
• Assisting with emergency rescues, if trained to do so.
• Summoning EMS personnel by calling 9-1-1 or the designated
• Bringing rescue equipment, such as a backboard or an automated
external defibrillator (AED), to the scene.
• Clearing the swimming area.
• Alerting additional safety team members.
• Controlling bystanders.
• Securing and protecting the area or evacuating the facility.
• Notifying the chain of command, beginning with the lifeguard supervisor
or facility manager, who then informs the appropriate individuals.
• Meeting and directing EMS responders to the scene.
• Collecting information for reports.
• Dealing with questions from patrons or the media.
5. When completing a report, you should:
C | Collect all factual information about what was seen, heard and the actions taken.
6. Who should deal with questions from the media after an incident? Select all that apply.
C | The facility manager
D | The company spokesperson
Only management or a designated spokesperson
should talk to the media or others about an
incident; your doing so may lead to legal action.
7. Why might a supervisor chose NOT to re-open a facility that was closed during an emergency? Provide one example.
decision may depend on safety issues, such as
whether enough lifeguards are ready to return
to surveillance duty, all of the required equipment
is in place or spills involving blood or other
potentially infectious materials have been
8. Members of the safety team, including non-lifeguard personnel, should be:
First aid and CPR certified
9. After an emergency has been resolved, there are still three important tasks to
complete. Explain each task.
Report, Advise, Release
10. You must be prepared to respond to emergencies that are outside of the immediate aquatic environment and not part of your zone of responsibility. Describe three areas where these emergencies could occur.
• Concession areas
• Entrance and lobby areas
• Mechanical rooms
• Playgrounds and play areas
• Parking lots
1. An EAP for a missing person includes quickly checking if the person is in the water.
Checking for a submerged victim is most difficult for which area?
List the general procedures, in order, for situations involving a water rescue.
1. Activate the emergency action plan (EAP).
2. Enter the water, if necessary.
3. Perform an appropriate rescue.
4. Move the victim to a safe exit point.
5. Remove the victim from the water.
6. Provide emergency care as needed.
7. Report, advise and release.
2. What are some factors that should be considered when deciding how to enter the
water? (Select all that apply)
A | Location of the victim
B | Location of other swimmers
D | Condition of the victim
F | Your location
G | Facility design/set-up
H | Type of equipment used
3. In addition to the correct answer(s) above, what additional factors should be
considered when deciding how to enter the water and why?
• The depth of the water
• The height and position of the lifeguard station
(elevated or at ground level)
• Obstacles in the water, such as people, lane
lines and safety lines
You are seated on an elevated lifeguard stand in the deep
end during recreational swim and spot a passive-drowning
victim. The area surrounding your station is clear of patrons
You are searching your zone from an elevated station when
you spot a patron who appears to have a head injury as a
result of diving in shallow water.
You spot an active drowning victim while searching your
zone from a ground-level station located in the middle of the
pool where the water is 4' deep.
You are searching your new zone as you walk toward the
elevated lifeguard stand in the deep end before a rotation
and you spot an active drowning victim.
You have just rotated to a roving station during open swim
at a crowded waterfront and spot a swimmer in distress.
5. What are the two most common assists and when should each be used?
• Simple Assist. A simple assist can be
used in shallow water and may be merely
helping a person to stand. The simple assist
also may be used to rescue a victim who
is submerged in shallow water and is
within reach (Figure 6-5).
• Reaching Assist. To assist a distressed
swimmer who is close to the side of the pool
or a pier, use a reaching assist from the deck
by extending a rescue tube within the victim's
grasp. A swimmer in distress usually is able to
reach for a rescue device. However, a victim
who is struggling to keep their mouth above
the water's surface in order to breathe may
not be able to grab a rescue tube. In this
case, you may need to enter the water to
rescue the victim using a front or rear
6. You are approaching a victim who is vertical in the water, near the surface in 4 feet
of water. The victim is facing you and appears to be unconscious.
B | Passive victim front rescue
7. You are approaching a child who is facing away from you and struggling to keep
their head above water.
A | Active victim rear rescue
8. You are approaching a victim from behind who appears to be unconscious
D | Passive victim rear rescue followed by extrication using a backboard
9. A victim in the water is not breathing.
A | Always remove a victim who is not breathing from the water as soon as possible to provide care. However, if doing so will delay care, then perform in-water ventilations until you can remove the victim
10. What are four core objectives in any rescue situation?