Today, more than 90 percent of school-aged children attend school, compared to only _____ percent in 1890.
Which of the following groups is reported to have the highest percentage of dropouts in 2007?
Over time the overall drop out rate is:
There are three independent views on the association between school failure and delinquency which of the following statements does not reflect one of these three views?
school failure is unrelated to delinquency
Academic tracking refers to:
dividing students into groups according to ability and achievement level
Which of the following statements about tracking and school failure is true?
studies indicate that non-college-track students experience progressive deterioration of achievement
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, about ______ students are killed at school each year.
According to the text, which of the following statements about kids who bring guns to school is false?
many of the kids that bring guns to school hang with peers who do not carry weapons
According to the profile developed by the U.S. Secret Service, school shootings:
involve shooters with a history of being bullied
According to the text, schools with fewer behavioral problems in the student body are characterized by:
Policies that mandate specific consequences or punishments for delinquent acts and do not allow anyone to avoid these consequences are referred to as:
zero tolerance policies
According to the text, about _____ percent of schools use random metal detectors.
Police need _________________ before they can conduct a search, but educators can legally search students when there are reasonable grounds to believe the students have violated the law or broken school rules.
____________________ is a form of expression protected by the First Amendment but not associated with actually speaking words.
True or False: Experts have concluded that many of the underlying problems of delinquency are connected with the nature and quality of the school experience.
True or False: According to the text, high school dropouts are more likely to stay out of prisons than those who have a high school diploma.
True or False: According to the text, almost half of all female dropouts left school because they were pregnant or had already given birth.
True or False: Family dysfunction increases the chances of dropping out of school among all racial and ethnic groups.
True or False: A Secret Service study found that over 50 percent of school shooters are minority-group members.
True or False: According to the text, only 25 percent of schools control access to school buildings by locking or monitoring doors.
True or False: According to the text, over 50 percent of students are bullied in school.
True or False: In the 1984 United States Supreme Court case New Jersey v. T.L.O. the court ruled that students were protected against unreasonable searches and seizures, but that school personnel are not bound by the same restrictions as police officers.
True or False: Only 9 percent of the chronic offenders in Wolfgang's Philadelphia cohort study graduated from high school, compared to 74 percent of non-offenders.
True or False: Delinquency has been associated with low self-control and impulsivity, traits that also may produce school failure.
True or False: Academic tracking is an effective method for providing academic success to all students in a school.
Which of the following is the most powerful natural stimulant?
The main active ingredient in marijuana is:
Crack is manufactured by using _________________________ to remove hydrochlorides to create a crystaline form of cocaine that can be smoked.
The most widely used drug amongst teenagers is:
Derived from opium, __________________ is the most used narcotic in the United States.
___________________ produce insensibility to pain and free the mind of anxiety and pain.
According to the text, ___________________ may be a factor in nearly half of all murders, suicides, and accidental deaths.
________________________therapy involves getting users to associate drugs with unpleasant sensations, such as nausea.
_________________ are central nervous system depressants, and they produce loss of sensation, stupor, and unconsciousness.
The most widely abused anesthetic drug is phencyclidine, also known as:
__________________ are the most commonly used drugs of the barbiturate family, and they depress the central nervous system into a sleeplike condition.
Natural substances that produce vivid distortions of the senses without greatly disturbing consciousness are known as:
Methedrine is the most widely used and most dangerous:
__________________ are lab-created synthetic drugs which are designed to at least temporarily get around existing drug laws.
Which of the following was noted as a problem of school-based adolescent drug surveys?
the exclusion of the most drug prone users
According to the text, which of the following may be the most significant influence on long-term substance abuse?
The view that the cause of substance abuse can be traced to a personality that has a compulsion for mood-altering drugs is known as:
A _____________________ is a substance that leads to the use of more serious drugs.
The most recent report from the National Institute of Justice's Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring found that:
among juvenile detainees, almost 60 percent of the males tested positive for marijuana
According to the text, about ______ percent of youths who use more serious drugs started on pot.
A great effort has been made to cut off supplies of drugs by destroying overseas crops and arresting members of drug cartels. This approach is known as:
Almost two-thirds of all admissions treatment facilities in the United States involved ______________________ as the primary drug of abuse.
The _______________________ technique developed by Scott Henggeler directs attention to family, peer, and psychological problems by focusing on problem solving and communication skills.
True or False: Heroin is the drug most commonly used by teenagers.
True or False: Alcohol-related deaths number one hundred thousand a year, far more than all illegal drugs combined.
True or False: The most widely abused anesthetic drug is phencyclidine, known as "goofballs", and it was originally developed as an animal tranquilizer.
True or False: Recent survey results indicate that drug use among adolescents is on the decline from peak levels in the 1990s.
True or False: According to the National Youth Survey, there is little if any association between drug use and social class.
True or False: Research on adolescent drug users in Miami found drinking with an adult present can be a significant precursor of substance abuse and delinquency.
True or False: The association between delinquency and drug use has been established in a variety of cultures.
Which state was the first to develop probation as a disposition of the court?
Prior to the creation of the juvenile court, how were juveniles who violated the law treated?
they were treated as an adult
The most prominent of the care facilities developed by the child savers was the _____________________________, which opened in 1825.
House of Refuge
The doctrine of ___________________ allowed justice officials to place youths in restrictive settings, for the youth's own good, and without the legal protections afforded by the adult criminal justice system.
In their study of the early juvenile court in Memphis, Tennessee, Shelden and Osborne noted that more than 96 percent of the actions with which females were charged were:
According to the text, which of the following statements best describes what children's legal rights were like during the period of the Child Savers?
none of the above are true
By 1930 about ______________ youths were placed out in rural homesteads by the Children's Aid Society.
The first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was created in 1874, and by 1900:
there were 300 such societies in the U.S.
From the court's creation in 1899 until the late 1960s, the burden of proof in a juvenile court case was:
preponderance of the evidence
Which of the following statements about the U.S. juvenile justice system is false?
in all fifty states and the District of Columbia, nineteen is the maximum age for a youth to fall under the jurisdiction of the juvenile court
Like adults, juveniles are protected against reasonable search and seizure under the ________________ and Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution.
If the youth is adjudicated delinquent, the court must decide an outcome or treatment approach; this decision is made during the:
According to the text, which of the following is the most commonly used formal sentence for juvenile offenders?
Juvenile aftercare is similar to ____________________ for adults.
Which of the following is not offered in the text as a potential benefit of teen courts?
True or False: Prior to the creation of the juvenile justice system, the poor, the insane, the diseased, and vagrant and destitute children were commonly housed in the same institutions.
True or False: Pretrial motions are not allowed in the juvenile justice system.
True or False: Efforts to ensure that juveniles are given appropriate treatment are consistent with the doctrine of parens patriae that predominated in the first half of the twentieth century.
True or False: Like adults, juveniles are indicted for a crime.
True or False: Head Start and Smart Start are examples of intervention programs that focus on teenage youths.
The ______________ system was the organization of men in early English society who patrolled areas at night to protect against disturbances and breaches of the peace.
What policing system was used in England prior to the Norman conquest and the establishment of the watch system?
The first professional police force was established in 1829 in:
Which of the following statements about juveniles' views about the police is false?
all of the above are true
Crimes such as murder, rape, and ________________ are felonies.
The protection against unreasonable searches and seizures is contained within the ________________ Amendment.
Juveniles are protected against "___________________" searches and seizures.
According to People v. Lara, juveniles can waive their Miranda rights, but the validity of the waiver is determined by the circumstances of each case; this illustrates the ______________________ doctrine.
totality of the circumstances
Police _________ is selective enforcement of law by authorized police agents, giving officers a choice among possible courses of action within limits on their power.
The FBI estimates that almost two-thirds of all juvenile arrests are:
referred to juvenile court
According to the text, which of the following is a source of police discretion?
all of the above
Which of the following statements is true regarding gender police treatment?
female teens are more likely than male teens to be arrested for status offenses
Decentralized police operations, direct engagement with the community, empowering line officers, and community partnerships are associated with:
Operation Ceasefire has two main elements: a direct law enforcement focus on illicit gun traffickers who supply youth with guns and:
an attempt to generate a strong deterrent to gang violence
True or False: The first organized police force was created in London in 1829.
True or False: Since the mid-1990s, the juvenile violence rate has increased substantially.
True or False: In felony cases, the police officer must personally observe the crime to place a suspect in custody or have probable cause to believe that a crime took place and that the juvenile did it.
True or False: Most juvenile codes provide broad authority for the police to take juveniles into custody, which implies a protective rather than punitive form of custody.
True or False: Most courts have held that the Fourth Amendment ban against unreasonable search and seizure applies to juveniles.
True or False: Since the mid-1960s, any incriminating statements arising from a "custodial interrogation" cannot be used at trial.
True or False: In a classic 1963 study, Nathan Goldman examined the arrest records of more than a thousand juveniles from four communities in Pennsylvania and concluded that the majority of the police contacts with juveniles were handled informally.
True or False: Over sixty percent of juvenile arrests are referred to a community-service agency.
True or False: Research indicates that a police officer is much more likely to take formal action if the crime is serious, if it has been reported by a respectable member of the community, and if the offender is well known to them.
True or False: The main difference between arrests of adult and juvenile offenders is the broader latitude police have to control youthful behavior.
True or False: According to the text, the use of community policing officers has increased significantly in the last few years.