Criminal Justice Chapter 7: Contemporary Issues and Challenges
Terms in this set (31)
What actions have been taken to combat counterfeit currency in the US?
1. redesign of US currency
2. efforts to detect it from cashiers at store
3. internal investigations leading to seizures of large amounts of the currency
What harms are caused by counterfeit products in the US?
1. billions in losses for American businesses
2. death and other harmful health consequences
What aspects of weaponry increase the risks to police officers and the public?
1. availability of high powered weapons allow criminals to outgun police
2. availability of body armor allow criminals to avoid being easily stopped by police weapons
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
Computer technology and software that enable law enforcement officials to map problem location s to better understand calls for service and the nature and frequency of crimes and other specific issues within specific neighborhoods.
Impressions from the ridges on the fingertips that are left behind on objects due to natural secretions from the skin or contaminating materials, such as ink, blood, or dirt, which are present on the fingertips at the time of their contact with the objects.
What kinds of new technologies are assisting police with their investigative functions?
1. laptops in patrol cars to connect to databases
2. GIS-Geographic information systems
3. DNA testing
What problems are associated with the use of new technologies?
1. questions about the accuracy and reliability of the technology
2. inadequate resources to utilize technology fully
3. ethics and competence of personnel
Weapons such as pepper spray and air-fired beanbags or nets that intend to incapacitate a suspect without inflicting serious injuries.
What kinds of new weaponry have police employed?
Less lethal weapons such as:
1. beanbag projectiles
3. pepperball projectiles
Conducted energy devices (i.e. Tasers)
LAW ENFORCEMENT INTELLIGENCE
Information, collected and analyzed by law enforcement officials, concerning criminal activities and organizations such as gangs, drug traffickers, and organized crime.
Centers run by states and large cities that analyze and facilitate sharing of information to assist law enforcement and homeland security agencies in preventing and responding to crime and terror threats.
What have law enforcement officials done to enhance homeland security?
1. planning and coordination with other agencies
2. new equipment and training
3. ICS- Incident Command System
USA PATRIOT ACT
A federal statute passed in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of Sept 11, 2001, which broadens government authority to conduct searches and wiretaps and that expands the definitions of crimes involving terrorism.
What are the criticisms directed at the USA Patriot Act?
1. permits too much government authority for searches and wiretaps
2. defines domestic terrorism in ways that might include legitimate protest groups
What has caused the growth of security management and private policing?
Companies' recognition of the need to"
1. protect assets and plan for emergencies
2. problems with employee theft
3. computer crime
4. other issues that require active prevention and investigation
What are the 3 models for private employment of police officers?
1. department contract model
2. officer contract model
3. union brokerage model
What kinds of practices may be viewed as police abuse?
1. profanity/abusive language
2. physical force
EXCESSIVE USE OF FORCE
Applications of force against individuals by police officers that violate either departmental policies or constitutional rights by exceeding the level of force permissible and necessary in a given situation.
When may the police use force?
Force may be used:
1. to make an arrest
2. to keep the peace
3. to maintain public order
How did the Supreme Court rule in Tennessee v. Garner?
Deadly force may not be used in apprehending a fleeing felon unless it is necessary to prevent escape and unless the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious physical injury to the officer or others.
What is the difference between grass eaters and meat eaters?
Grass Eaters- officers who accept payoffs that police work brings their way
Meat Eaters- officers who aggressively misuse their power for personal gain
What are five of the ten practices cited by Stoddard as blue-coat crime?
7. premeditated theft
INTERNAL AFFAIRS UNIT
A branch of a police department that receives and investigates complaints alleging violations of rules and policies on the part of officers.
CIVILIAN REVIEW BOARD
Citizens committee formed to investigate complaints against the police.
COMMISSION ON ACCREDITATION FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES (CALEA)
Non-profit organizations formed by major law enforcement executives' associations to develop standards for police practices and policies; on request, will review police agencies and award accreditation upon meeting those standards.
SECTION 1983 LAWSUITS
Civil lawsuits authorized by a federal statute against state and local officials and local agencies when citizens have evidence that their federal constitutional rights have been violated by these authorities.
What are the 4 methods used to increase the civic accountability of police?
1. Internal Affairs Units
2. civilian review boards
3. civil liability lawsuits
4. standards and accreditation
What is an internal affairs unit?
A unit within the police department designated to receive and investigate complaints alleging violation of rules and policies on the part of officers.
Why are civilian review boards relatively uncommon?
Opposition by the policed.
What is the importance of the decision in Monell v. Department of Social Services of the City of New York?
Allows citizens to sue individual officers and the agency when an individual's civil rights are violated by the agency's customs and usages.
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