48 terms

History of Civ Chapter 28

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Lebensraum
German for "living space"
Japanese occupation of Manchuria, 1931
reveals the weakness of the League of Nations to keep the peace and enforce the balance of powers
Italian occupation of Ethiopia, 1935
also revealed weak League of Nations and timidity of the Allies;
Rome-Berlin Axis
Forces(opposed to the Allies) joined together in Europe, including Germany and Italy before and during World War 2
militarization of the Rhineland, 1936
breach of Versailles treaty; removed a crucial element of French security;
appeasement
Allied policy of making concessions to Germany based on the belief that Germany's grievances were real and Hitler's goals limited
Spanish Civil War
made the new European alignment between democracies and fascist states clearer
Franco
got aid from Germany and Italy; led an army from Spanish Morocco against the republic
Anschluss
Union of Germany and Austria
Sudetenland
the key to Czech security; given to Germany at Munich conference;
Munich Conference: Chamberlain
Germany, France, Britain, Italy; Germany receives everything it demands in return for sparing Czechoslovakia; FAILURE
Nazi-Soviet Pact
divided poland between Germany and Russia and allowed Russia to occupy the Baltic states and to take Bessarabia from Romania
September 1, 1939
Germans invade Poland; 2 days later Britain and France declare war on Germany. WW 2 begins
blitzkrieg
lightning warfare
Maginot Line
ran from switzerland to the Belgian frontier
Dunkirk
British and French armies in Belgium forces to flee to the English channel to seek escape on the beaches of Dunkirk
Pétain
leader of the new french government; asked for armistice
Churchill
British prime minister; inspired the British people with his own courage and determination and to undertake what seemed a hopeless fight; established close relationship with FDR
Roosevelt (FDR)
found ways to help the british despite strong political opposition
Battle of Britain
Germany bombed London; instead of shattering british morale, it united them and made them more resolute; hitler lost the battle in the air and was forced to abandon his plans for invasion
Luftwaffe
German Air force
Royal Air Force (RAF)
inflicted heavy losses on the Luftwaffe
Operation Barbarossa
code name for the invasion of Russia; aimed to destroy Russia before winter could set in; June 1941: surprise invasion of Soviet Union by germany launched; Germany advance rapidly in the early stages of the campaign; german failure to deliver a decisve blow delayed victory until winter set in, turning the tide in the Soviets' favor
Rommel
German general drove the British back from Africa into Egypt;
Third Reich
Hitler's nazi regime
Tojo
Japanese general, led war faction that took power and decided to risk a war rather than lead
December 7, 1941
Pearl Harbor; US enters the war
Battle of Midway
US defeats the Japanese in a fierce air and naval battle off of Midway Island; did enough damage to halt the Japanese
Battle of El Alamein
British victory that stopped the Axis forces from advancing into Northern Africa
Montgomery
English general- won victories over Rommel in North Africa
Battle of Stalingrad
German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter; turning point of war in Eastern Europe
June 6, 1944: D-Day
the operation that launched the invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II by Allied forces; Allies invade Normandy; begin liberation of Europe
[Eisenhower]
Allied (US) commander; helped plan the D-Day invasion at Normandy
Battle of the Bulge May 8, 1945
V-E day; one of the biggest and bloodiest battles; Germans push against Allied(US) lines, heavy casualties; Allies hold the line
atomic bomb
developed by exiles from hitler's europe, used by the U.S. to end World War II. It was dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Hiroshima, Nagasaki
Japanese cities destroyed by the atomic bomb
Hirohito
Japanese emperor who took unprecedented action by intervening with the Japanese government and demanding they surrender to the US
[MacArthur]
US leader of the Pacific warfare
September 2, 1945
Japan surrenders to the US in tokyo port aboard the USS Missouri
Holocaust
the organized killing of European Jews and others by the Nazis; also called the solution to the "Final Problem"
Vichy France
the government during German-controlled France
de Gaulle
fled to Britain after German take over; organized "Free France" government to go back in and take over Vichy France
the "Blitz"
a period of German air attack on London
Atlantic Charter
Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
the "Big Three"
Russia(Stalin), UK(Churchill) and US(FDR)
Tehran Conference
First major meeting between the Big Three at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Potsdam Conference
.The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Atlee, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.