chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in ph by releasing or binding hydrogen ions.
state of abnormally high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid.
substance released by the kidneys that is involved with raising blood pressure.
double-walled cup at end of a renal tubule; encloses a glomerulus. also called bowman's capsule.
the indented region of an organ from which blood and/or lymph vessels and nerves enter and exit.
a substance capable of binding with hydrogen ions; a proton acceptor.
passage of a solvent and dissolved substances through a membrane or filter.
cluster of capillaries forming part of the nephron; forms filtrate.
a kidney stone.
system primarily responsible for water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and removal of nitrogenous wastes.
elimination of waste products from the body.
urination, or voiding; emptying the bladder.
canal through which urine passes from the bladder to outside the body.
main nitrogen-containing waste excreted in urine.
tube that carries urine from kidney to bladder.
triangular-shaped areas of tissue in the medulla of the kidney
located behind the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity
"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
combination cuboidal and columnar, stretch readily and permit distenstion by urine, found in ureters, bladder, and part of urethra
an insoluble precipitate of nitrogenous waste; may accumulate in joints - gout
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
triangular area in the urinary bladder in which the ureters enter and the urethra exits
extensions of cortical tissue that dip down into the medulla of the kidney between the renal pyramids
atrial natriuretic peptide
hormone secreted by the heart when there is an increase in blood flow which increases sodium excretion, and lowers blood pressure
A disorder in which the blood becomes basic; pH greater than 7.45
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
hormone produced by the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus that stimulates water reabsorption from kidney tubule cells into the blood and vasoconstriction of arterioles; increases BP and lowers urine output
bicarbonate buffer system
a buffer in blood
nitrogenous waste by product of muscle metabolism
pressure induced movement of material from the blood into the filtrate
nephrons with well-developed loops of Henle that extend deeply into the renal medulla
loop of Henle
section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine
functional units of the kidney; approximately 1 million per kidney
network of capillaries that surrounds the proximal and distal tubules in the kidney
major control of blood pressure; involves the release of aldosterone and vasoconstriction
movement of material from the renal tubule (filtrate) back to the blood
movement of material from the blood in the peritubular capillary into the renal tubule (filtrate)
muscular sac, lined with transitional epithelium, that stores urine
fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials
the opposite flow of adjacent fluids that maximizes transfer rates; for example, blood in peritubular capillaries and the fluid in the nephron loop