US History 1301 Unit 2 (FULL SET)
Terms in this set (81)
American colonists who wanted independence from Britain and were determined to fight the British until independence; counts 30-35%
refers to those Americans who remained loyal to the King and Parliament during the Revolution, counts 15-20%, known to rebels the "tories"
Main rebel military force, formed in 1775 by the Second Continental Congress and led by General George Washington
Battle of Trenton-Princeton
Continentals defeated Hessian troops (1000 Germans) in Trenton, Deleware on Christmas
Defeated British troops in Princeton, NJ on Jan 3, 1777
1) Washington's daring move
2) Morale boost for U.S
3) Mini gain for England's maximum effort
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy;
convinced the French to be alliance of the of America; boost morale for the U.S.;
turn a local battle into a international war
Battle of Yorktown
The last battle of the Revolutionary War, fought in 1781 near the seacoast of Virginia. There the British general Lord Cornwallis surrendered
this was Washington's greatest success
led parliament to seek peace
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Revolutionary war ends with the Treaty of Paris 1783, (1) G.B's recognition of U.S Independence
(2) creation of U.S boundaries, US gains land from ATL OC to MISS and from Grt Lakes to border of FL
(3) Fishing rights in Gulf of St Lawrence and Newfoundland
(4) Tory rights and British debts??
1) American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris;
2) New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation;
3) One of the authors of The Federalist Papers, was
4) involved in the drafting of the Constitution;
5) later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court
6) negotiated the Jay Treaty with G.B
He was America's first Vice-President and the second president of the United States and a Federalist. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself. (1797-1801) The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1798.
1. entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution after the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac
2. negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and
3. helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789).
4. paradigm during Enlightenment throughout in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy
5. American public official, writer, scientist, and printer.
Bill of Rights (state and federal)
state: proposed by George Mason to Virginia constitution ,insert a list of rights of the citizen, incl. free speech, free assembly, right of press, freedom from church.
federal: drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
applies to states via selective incorporation doctrine; promised to Anti-Federalists to secure ratification of Constitution
passed 12 amendments 1993
1. was a delegate to the First Continental Congress and refused to sign the Declaration of Independence because he still hoped for reconciliation with the king. 2. led the committee that provided the rough draft for the Articles of Confederation and,
3. in 1786, he presided over the Annapolis Convention that sought to resolve interstate problems that arose under the Articles.
4. was a delegate from Delaware to the U.S. Constitutional Convention and supported the rights of the small states.
Articles of Confederation
America's 1st Constitution, adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War
created a WEAK central government, limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states;
the poorly defined national state that couldn't govern the country's finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789
negotiation secretary of foreign affairs, John Jay, and Spanish minister Gardoqui for a treaty that would have granted lucrative commercial privileges to large east-coast merchants, in exchange for US acceptance of Spain's closure of the Mississippi River for 25 years without protest
in exchange of American's navigation right to Mississippi,
right of deposit goods in New Orleans
trade with Spain
Florida boundaries return to 31 parallel
never got ratified
1. Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures.
2. caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working;
3. highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out
Land Ordinance, of 1785
Established on May 20th, 1785, a successful land policy under the Articles of Confederation, provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land, divided land west of the original colonies into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.1) six square mile township 2) subdivided into 36 one square mile sections 3) sold for $1 per acre, minimum 640 acres 4) 16 sections for education, act as the church role in Europe
Northwest Land Ordinance, 1787
Passed under Articles of Confederation - 1) an appointed governor and 3 judges; 2) 5000 voters 3) created a process for admitting new states with 60,000 inhabitants 4) banned slavery in NW territory (OH, MI, IN, etc.);
A congressional act to enable a territory territory to with a proposed State constitution to become a state
Called for by Hamilton, delegates from five states met in Annapolis in September 1786 to discuss interstate commerce. However, discussions of weaknesses in the government led them to suggest to Congress a new convention to amend the Articles of Confederation, which became the Constitutional Convention
Philadelphia Convention (Constitutional)
May 25, 1787
1) held in Philadelphia, recommended by the Annapolis Convention.
2) was originally called to revise the Articles of Confederation.
3) All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates.
4) George Washington served as president of the convention, lasted 16 weeks.
5) September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States.
6) drafted largely by James Madison.
(1809-1813) and (1813-1817) The War of 1812, the US declares war on Great Britain.
In 1814, the British (technically the Canadians) set fire to the Capitol. The Treaty of Ghent ends the war in 1814.,
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817).
A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), strongly supported ratification of the Constitution
was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution.
Favored strict interpretation of the Constitution.
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution,
1. calling for proportional representation based on population in both houses of a bicameral Congress.
2. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
1. Virginia delegation to the Constitutional Convention 2. proposed the Virginia Plan (Randolph Plan; Large-State Plan) to the Convention
3. 1st Attorney General
New Jersey Plan
1. opposite of the Virginia Plan
2. Proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by William Paterson of New Jersey
3. it proposed central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally by one vote.
4. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
states would have equal representation (2 senators) in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives) .
This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
outlined the process for states to count slaves as part of the population in order to determine representation and taxation for the federal government.
greatly benefited the Southern states
opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government
1) in the fear of states lose autonomy (Henry)
2) the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states (Mason)
3) Re-elect ability of President (Jefferson)
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
to defend the Constitution in details
to promote the ratification of the Constitution and a strong federal government over a weak confederate one.
to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government
A department of the federal executive branch primarily responsible for making and conducting foreign and defense policy. It is headed by the secretary of state.
established during President Washington's administration;
executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
was established by an Act of Congress in 1789 to manage government revenue.
is the source of part of the American money supply
created under Washington administration, responsible for handling the nation's defense, 1st secretary Henry Knox
Judiciary Act, 1789
1. established the federal court system
2. created the Supreme Court with a chief justice (John Jay as 1st) and 5 associates
3. created federal court systems consisted of 13 district courts & 1st appellate court systems that 3 circuit courts appeal
4. created attorney general
Hamiltonianism (Federalist Party)
1. believe that people are evil and untrustworthy, calvinism
2. people are motivated by self - interest
3. the rich and well-educated are essential for the central govorment
4. wanted a manufacturing industry and commerce, to make US independent of Europe
5.a central federal government
Jeffersonianism (Democrat-Republican Party)
1. believe are people are trustworthy and the safeguard and the watchdog of the government, confidence in the political ability of the common man
2. states' rights, a strict construction of the federal Constitution,
3. foresee America an agrarian republic
Hamilton Financial Plan
1.Pay off all federal debts at full face value to restore credit
2.national government will assume state debt, a policy called Funding and Assumption.
3.Place excise tax including 25% tax on Whiskey.
4.Establish the bank of the United States, holds government deposits and issue money
5.Hamilton's program was a success. government credit restored and inflation ended, and a strong currency was created.
Funding and Assumption
Part of Alexander Hamilton's financial plan that had the national government "assume" the remaining state debts incurred during the American Revolution and "fund" or pay the national debt through the sale of bonds.
(1791)"Bank of the United States,"
part of Hamilton's economic plan that provided a safe storage for government funds, serve as an agent for the gov. in the collection, movement and expenditure of tax money and finance new and expanding business enterprises (speeding up national economic growth).
Governor of New York
Democratic-Republican candidate, in 1812 election, supported by Federalists to run against to Madison. Madison won a second term.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815;
Treaty of Ghent 1814 had officially ended the 1812 war , but word had not yet reached the U.S.
ended with an american victory
The British practice of seizing American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812
1) became George Washington's first secretary of state. 2) Along with James Madison, took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government.
3) third president from 1801 to 1809
4) doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
5) wrote the Declaration of Independence
military outposts in American western territories, manned by British military, which violated the treaty of Paris, 1783
1789-1799. A Period of political and social upheaval in France, during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.
known as Citizen Genet, was the French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution.
was dispatched to the United States to promote American support for France's wars with Spain and Britain.His actions endangered American neutrality in the war between France and Britain
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing 1. G.B out of Northwest fur posts and trade on the Mississippi River.
2. commission to compensate Americans
3. Americans limited trade right with East Indies
4. US assume Tory debts
5. US recognize GB integration of International law
6. 10 years US not discriminate against G.B trade
Pinckney Treaty, 1796
1. Navigation right on Mississippi river, access to world markets
2. allow American traders to use the port of New Orleans.
3. U.S - florida boundary at 31st parallel
Negotiated the 1796 treaty with Spain that provided for free navigation of the Mississippi River
Federalist candidate in the second presidential election who ran along with John Adams, but did not get elected
was one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New York, the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton's Federalist policies
the 1800 election, Burr tied with Jefferson and made Burr Vice- President.
served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797
Incident in which French agents demanded a bribe and loan from the U.S. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement with French foreign minister, Talleyrand that French privateers would no longer attack American ships;
led to an undeclared war between U.S. and France
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798:
the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years;
the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens;
the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US;
the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives.
The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders.
In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion.
The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Election of 1796
The first contested/true American presidential election
The person with the most electoral votes, John Adams, became President and the person with the second most electoral votes, Thomas Jefferson, became Vice President.
A problem from this situation was that Adams and Jefferson belonged to different political parties, so political tensions were strong in the Executive Branch.
In modern elections, presidential candidates choose their vice presidential candidates to run with them, so the situation in 1796 could not occur.
Convention of 1800
1) Agreement to formally dissolve the United States' treaty with France, originally signed during the Revolutionary War.
2) U.S gives up any compensation for the lost during the undeclared war
3) Ended the undeclared war with France
Election of 1800
Tie between Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson which went to the House of Representatives. Jefferson won the presidency after 36 ballots when Alexander Hamilton persuaded three members of the House to vote for Jefferson. Significance: 12 amendment
Federalist, the only congressman pf Delaware who ultimately determined the winner in the election of 1800
Judiciary Act 1802
repealed all the federal courts created under judiciary act 1801, 3 new circuit courts, all permanent appointments, and the 3 new district justice courts.
appointed by John Adams, served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped define the federal court system and create the modern court, one of the most important jurist in US history
Albert Gallatin was the secretary of the treasury under Thomas Jefferson. He proved to be as able as Alexander Hamilton. He succeeded in greatly reducing the debt, and balancing the budget.
Judiciary Act, 1801
1) known as the Midnight Judges Act, as all appointees were Federalists.
2) increased the number of district and circuit courts,
3) created courts for Washington DC
a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, an ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached. A lawyer by proffesion, in 1796 he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by president Washington. This was after he served as Chief Justice of the General Court of Maryland in 1791. In 1804, for alleged prejudice against the Jeffersonians in treason and sedition trials. The senate, however, in a decision that indicated reluctance to remove judges for purely political reasons, did not convict him, and he remained on the court until his death.
The Barbary states -Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli - were profiting by seizing American ships and sailors in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1801, Jefferson sent the small American navy to blockade the port of Tripoli, winning a favorable peace in 1805.
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
Along with james monroe, he negotiated in paris for the louisiana land area; signed a treaty on 04/30/1803, ceding louisiana to the united states for $15 million.
Along with Livingston, he negotiated in paris for the louisiana land area; signed a treaty on 04/30/1803, ceding louisiana to the united states for $15 million.
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
the French foreign minister when Adams sent U.S. diplomats to France to try to improve diplomatic ties with them. Would not meet with U.S. and instead sent three French agents to bribe the diplomats into meeting with Talleyrand. Demanded $250,000 and a loan for the French govt. of $12 million.
Napoleon's foreign minister
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe.
Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated in waterloo and died in exile
1806 Napoleon's order declaring the British Isles under blockade and authorizing the confiscation of British goods from any ship found carrying them
an attempt to cut Britain off from the rest of the world also meant that American ships traveling to Britain to deposit goods would get caught in the Napoleonic War.
in 1807 which proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulation or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy was subject to seizure by France.
Orders in Council
British laws which led to the War of 1812.
passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
Attempt to exert economic pressure by prohibiting trade with Britain an France, instead of waging war in reaction to continued British impressment of American sailors; smugglers easily circumvented the embargo, and it was repealed two years later
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Reopened trade with Britain and France , America would lend its support to the first nation to drop trade restrictions; France acted first and America halted all British imports. The United States declared war on Britain.
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. He became an ally of the British in the War of 1812. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Nationalist members of Congress - primarily from southern and western states - who strongly supported war with Great Britain on the eve of the War of 1812
a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives,
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Election of 1812
Federalists realized that they could not win the wartime election so they supported Democratic-Republican candidate, Dewitt Clinton, opposed to Madison. Madison won a second term. Republicans were happy because they knew a war would be declared.
the country was divided over the issue of war (many Northern states opposed war while South wanted to go to war)
Treaty of Ghent, 1814
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. The war ended in a stalemate no gain for either side. For the most part territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812.
They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored.
American victory in the war made their protests seem pointless.T
he Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.