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must account for speciation, origin of life, origin of matter/energy/universe

Evolution Model

already accoutns for God making all life to reproduce after its own kind, God saying let there be light (and there was light), and The heavens declaring the glory of God

Creation Model

has mass, occupies space


the smallest particle of an element with the properties of that element


consists of two or more atoms bonded together


the capacity to do work, make things happen


matter, energy, laws called to exist by a creator. Complete, complex, conserved but subject to decay since the fall.

Origin of Matter/Energy according to the Creation Model

Matter, energy, laws came from nothing to form subatomic particles (plasma), and the complex forms of matter (atoms, molecules, stars)

Origin of Matter/Energy according to the Evolution Model

Matter cannot be created nor destroyed, by can be converted from one form or another

First Law of Thermodynamics

Every system left to itself goes from order to disorder. Energy is transformed into less useful forms.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

In a spontaneous process _____ increases.


Inconsistent with the First Law of Thermodynamics

Steady State Theory

Difficulty with Initial Ordered State

Big Bang Theory

Most Popular Natural Explanation

Big Bang

The major evidence for the Big Bang theory is evidence that the universe is...


Suggests that initial material in the universe rotated like a whirlpool.


Thought a rotating cloud of gas would contract in the middle and flatten


Proposed cooling, shrinking, rotating could would leave rings that would eventually become planets


Suggested the sun was hit by a comet, and pieces flew off to form the planets


Heavy elements produced in stars and released through

Interstellar Medium

Form from balls of gaseous material in a nebula, according to the Nebula Model

Solar Systems

According to the Nebula Hypothesis, the sun should be spinning ________


According to the Nebula Hypothesis, material of planets should be ________


According to the Nebula Hypothesis, the sun should orbit in _______ plane


According to the Nebula Hypothesis, there is no _____ rotation


_____% of angular momentum is in the planets


Mercury, Pluto, comets, and asteroids rotate in a _______ orbital motion


Venus, Uranus, and 3 of 12 of Jupiter's moons have ______ rotation


Each celestial body was individually created and therefore they and therefore they do not need to be similar in content, orbital plane, or rotation

Creation Model

Some say the moon formed as _______ and separated.

Part of the earth.

What are the problems with believing that the moon came from the earth?

Angular momentum is a problem, and Moon lacks iron/nickel core like Earth.

Some say that the moon was formed somewhere in the solar system, and was ___________.


What is the problem with the capture theory?

Similar oxygen isotope ratios is a problem.

Some say, a Mars-sized body ______ with the early earth to create the moon.


What are the problems with the collision theory?

Some models suggest such an impact would preclude liquid water on earth.

Earth is the only planet in the solar system that has solar and lunar _______


There is no good ________ explanation for the origin of the solar system


No ___________ can be done to prove the origin of the solar system.


Evidence that organisms lived in the past


Types of fossils:

Preserved body parts, Casts/Molds, Imprints, Amber, Petrification

Formation of Fossils Requires:

Rapid burial of organisms, Rapid deposition of sediments

________ is required, because organisms must escape destruction and decomposition.

Rapid burial

Sedimentary rock is formed by:

Erosion and deposition in layers, and Lithification

Sediment changing into rock


Predictions of the fossil records (evolution):

Gradual sequence from simple to complex organisms, Transitional forms should be abundant, Living species significantly different than fossil ancestors, Modern species should not be found in rocks older than rocks containing supposed ancestors

Predictions of the fossil records (creation):

Sudden appearance of complex organisms with no transitional forms, Organisms remain essentially the same to present or become extinct, Fossilized modern species could be found in rock containing extinct species, Different combinations of fossil species in different strata indicate ecological zones not evolutionary history

rapid, violent, major events that could radically shape the planet very quickly


The present is the key to the past


Believed that a series of catastrophes were supposedly responsible for geologic formations. He also thought that God supernaturally repopulated the eart after every catastrophe, and did not take a straightforward approach to scripture


First theory to suggest that the earth was very old


Viewed Earth and universe as continuously changing with no beginning and no end


Only processes observed today can be used to describe past events


Group who objected to old earth compromises

Scriptural Geologists

Old earth geologists ignored what Bible verse?

Genesis 6-9

What was in Genesis 6-9?

Noah's Flood

What are the geological objections to old earth geology?

Deposition of sediments was rapid, polystrate fossils, some fossil human remains were found with extinct animals. Geology was in its infancy.

Fossils that exist through more than one strata

Polystrate Fossils

Example of a polystrate fossil:

Fossilized or petrified trees which cross strata

"Oldest" rocks containing abundant fossils are from the _____ period.


The Cambrian Explosion is Evolutions...

Big Bang

Three mains lines of evidence for evolution:

Microevolution, Fossil Record, Vestiges and Mistakes

Large changes


Only observed in the fossil record


Some specimens are only known by ____ and _____ fragments

Teeth and Jaw

No fossil evidence for origin of ____________

Modern Mammals

Means "the whale from Pakistan"


The history of most fossil species includes two features particularly inconsistent with _________.


Most species exhibit no directional change during their tenure on earth. They appear in the fossil record looking much the same as when they disappear; morphological change is usually limited and directional.


In any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors; it appears once and "fully formed"

Sudden appearance

According to evolutionists, some organisms remain unchanged through "millions of years of evolution":

Crocodiles, Horse-shoe crap, sharks, coelocanth, Ginko Bilboa (tree)

Extinct armored fish


Sharks and rays


Bony fish (most modern fish)


Four-limbed vertebrates


Supposed intermediate between dinosaurs and birds. Has fathers, has teeth, has claws on its wings. IS A BIRD.


An animal can be intermediate in form between two organisms without being a ______________ between them.

Genealogical transition

There are ______ purported genealogical transitions in the fossil record.


Long periods of stasis. Short periods of rapid change.

Punctuated Equilibrium

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