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78 terms

CRST 290 Exam 3

STUDY
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must account for speciation, origin of life, origin of matter/energy/universe
Evolution Model
already accoutns for God making all life to reproduce after its own kind, God saying let there be light (and there was light), and The heavens declaring the glory of God
Creation Model
has mass, occupies space
matter
the smallest particle of an element with the properties of that element
atom
consists of two or more atoms bonded together
molecule
the capacity to do work, make things happen
energy
matter, energy, laws called to exist by a creator. Complete, complex, conserved but subject to decay since the fall.
Origin of Matter/Energy according to the Creation Model
Matter, energy, laws came from nothing to form subatomic particles (plasma), and the complex forms of matter (atoms, molecules, stars)
Origin of Matter/Energy according to the Evolution Model
Matter cannot be created nor destroyed, by can be converted from one form or another
First Law of Thermodynamics
Every system left to itself goes from order to disorder. Energy is transformed into less useful forms.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
In a spontaneous process _____ increases.
Entropy
Inconsistent with the First Law of Thermodynamics
Steady State Theory
Difficulty with Initial Ordered State
Big Bang Theory
Most Popular Natural Explanation
Big Bang
The major evidence for the Big Bang theory is evidence that the universe is...
Expanding
Suggests that initial material in the universe rotated like a whirlpool.
Descartes
Thought a rotating cloud of gas would contract in the middle and flatten
Newton
Proposed cooling, shrinking, rotating could would leave rings that would eventually become planets
Laplace
Suggested the sun was hit by a comet, and pieces flew off to form the planets
Buffon
Heavy elements produced in stars and released through
Interstellar Medium
Form from balls of gaseous material in a nebula, according to the Nebula Model
Solar Systems
According to the Nebula Hypothesis, the sun should be spinning ________
rapidly
According to the Nebula Hypothesis, material of planets should be ________
Dying
According to the Nebula Hypothesis, the sun should orbit in _______ plane
Same
According to the Nebula Hypothesis, there is no _____ rotation
Retrograde
_____% of angular momentum is in the planets
99%
Mercury, Pluto, comets, and asteroids rotate in a _______ orbital motion
Reverse
Venus, Uranus, and 3 of 12 of Jupiter's moons have ______ rotation
Retrograde
Each celestial body was individually created and therefore they and therefore they do not need to be similar in content, orbital plane, or rotation
Creation Model
Some say the moon formed as _______ and separated.
Part of the earth.
What are the problems with believing that the moon came from the earth?
Angular momentum is a problem, and Moon lacks iron/nickel core like Earth.
Some say that the moon was formed somewhere in the solar system, and was ___________.
Captured
What is the problem with the capture theory?
Similar oxygen isotope ratios is a problem.
Some say, a Mars-sized body ______ with the early earth to create the moon.
Collided
What are the problems with the collision theory?
Some models suggest such an impact would preclude liquid water on earth.
Earth is the only planet in the solar system that has solar and lunar _______
eclipses
There is no good ________ explanation for the origin of the solar system
naturalistic
No ___________ can be done to prove the origin of the solar system.
experiments
Evidence that organisms lived in the past
Fossils
Types of fossils:
Preserved body parts, Casts/Molds, Imprints, Amber, Petrification
Formation of Fossils Requires:
Rapid burial of organisms, Rapid deposition of sediments
________ is required, because organisms must escape destruction and decomposition.
Rapid burial
Sedimentary rock is formed by:
Erosion and deposition in layers, and Lithification
Sediment changing into rock
Lithification
Predictions of the fossil records (evolution):
Gradual sequence from simple to complex organisms, Transitional forms should be abundant, Living species significantly different than fossil ancestors, Modern species should not be found in rocks older than rocks containing supposed ancestors
Predictions of the fossil records (creation):
Sudden appearance of complex organisms with no transitional forms, Organisms remain essentially the same to present or become extinct, Fossilized modern species could be found in rock containing extinct species, Different combinations of fossil species in different strata indicate ecological zones not evolutionary history
rapid, violent, major events that could radically shape the planet very quickly
Catastrophism
The present is the key to the past
Uniformitarianism
Believed that a series of catastrophes were supposedly responsible for geologic formations. He also thought that God supernaturally repopulated the eart after every catastrophe, and did not take a straightforward approach to scripture
Cavier
First theory to suggest that the earth was very old
Uniformitarianism
Viewed Earth and universe as continuously changing with no beginning and no end
Uniformitarianism
Only processes observed today can be used to describe past events
Uniformitarianism
Group who objected to old earth compromises
Scriptural Geologists
Old earth geologists ignored what Bible verse?
Genesis 6-9
What was in Genesis 6-9?
Noah's Flood
What are the geological objections to old earth geology?
Deposition of sediments was rapid, polystrate fossils, some fossil human remains were found with extinct animals. Geology was in its infancy.
Fossils that exist through more than one strata
Polystrate Fossils
Example of a polystrate fossil:
Fossilized or petrified trees which cross strata
"Oldest" rocks containing abundant fossils are from the _____ period.
Cambrian
The Cambrian Explosion is Evolutions...
Big Bang
Three mains lines of evidence for evolution:
Microevolution, Fossil Record, Vestiges and Mistakes
Large changes
Macroevolution
Only observed in the fossil record
Macroevolution
Some specimens are only known by ____ and _____ fragments
Teeth and Jaw
No fossil evidence for origin of ____________
Modern Mammals
Means "the whale from Pakistan"
Pakicetus
The history of most fossil species includes two features particularly inconsistent with _________.
Gradualism
Most species exhibit no directional change during their tenure on earth. They appear in the fossil record looking much the same as when they disappear; morphological change is usually limited and directional.
Stasis
In any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors; it appears once and "fully formed"
Sudden appearance
According to evolutionists, some organisms remain unchanged through "millions of years of evolution":
Crocodiles, Horse-shoe crap, sharks, coelocanth, Ginko Bilboa (tree)
Extinct armored fish
Placoderms
Sharks and rays
Chondrichthys
Bony fish (most modern fish)
Osteichthys
Four-limbed vertebrates
Tetrapods
Supposed intermediate between dinosaurs and birds. Has fathers, has teeth, has claws on its wings. IS A BIRD.
Achaeopteryx
An animal can be intermediate in form between two organisms without being a ______________ between them.
Genealogical transition
There are ______ purported genealogical transitions in the fossil record.
No
Long periods of stasis. Short periods of rapid change.
Punctuated Equilibrium